Craniofacial cephalometric morphologies in different cleft types: a retrospective cross-sectional study of 212 patients
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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the craniofacial cephalometric morphologies among different cleft types in a Spanish population.
A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 212 patients. The patients were subdivided into four groups according to their cleft types: unilateral cleft lip and palate; bilateral cleft lip and palate; cleft lip; and cleft palate. Angular and linear cephalometric measurements were taken on lateral radiographs.
Unilateral cleft lip and palate was associated with a dolichofacial growth pattern, skeletal Class III with correct maxillary position, and lingual incisor inclination. Bilateral cleft lip and palate was associated with a mesofacial growth pattern, skeletal Class I with protruded maxillary position, and lingual incisor inclination. Cleft palate was associated with a mesofacial growth pattern, skeletal Class III with correct maxillary position, and lingual incisor inclination. Cleft lip was associated with a brachyfacial growth pattern, skeletal Class I with protruded maxillary position, lingual upper incisor inclination, and corrects lower incisor inclination. Significant correlations were observed between cleft types and their craniofacial cephalometric measurements.
The present information can be used for the determination of orthodontic treatment and even future orthognathic surgery planning, a requirement in most cleft patients.
KeywordsUnilateral cleft lip and palate Bilateral cleft lip and palate Cleft lip Cleft palate Developmental anomaly
The authors wish to thank William James Packer for translating the manuscript into English.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Ana López-Giménez, Javier Silvestre-Rangil, Francisco-Javier Silvestre, and Vanessa Paredes-Gallardo declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human rights statements
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions.
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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