Oral Radiology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 105–112 | Cite as

Current status of oral and maxillofacial radiology in West Africa

  • Babatunde O. Bamgbose
  • Muhammad A. Suwaid
  • Mohammad Abubakar Kaura
  • Irfan Sugianto
  • Miki Hisatomi
  • Junichi Asaumi
Review Article



Oral and maxillofacial radiology became the ninth dental specialty recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1999. This came about following the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895 and, 14 days later, the application of X-rays to making dental radiographs by Otto Walkhoff. The purpose of this narrative study was to review the evolution of oral and maxillofacial radiology as a dental specialty in the USA and its recognition as a program of training by the West African College of Surgeons.


This study was conceptualized as a narrative review of the literature focusing on the history and development of oral and maxillofacial radiology in the USA. It builds a synthesis that describes the recognition of oral and maxillofacial radiology as a specialty of dentistry in West Africa, UK, Japan, and Australia.


The main finding was that oral and maxillofacial radiology became the ninth specialty recognized by the American Dental Association, ADA, in October 13, 1999. On March 20, 2014, the West African College of Surgeons recognized this specialty and granted accreditation for postgraduate training. In the UK, Japan, and Australia, the postgraduate education in oral and maxillofacial radiology has two patterns, namely professional training and academic training.


The primary goal of the postgraduate training curriculum is to train radiologists who are competent to deliver care to patients in any clinical setting, including a dental school, hospital radiology practice, or private practice.


Oral and maxillofacial radiology Curriculum Postgraduate training Scope Recognition 



The authors acknowledge the contributions of Axel Ruprecht, the Emeritus Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA, for his contributions toward the growth of the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in West Africa. The authors are also grateful to Prof. Paul Monsour, the Foundation Chair, Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, the University of Queensland, Australia, for providing information on the specialty training in Australia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statements

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Human subjects statement

There were no human subjects involved in the study. The narrative review procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of responsible conduct of research and the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Babatunde O. Bamgbose
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad A. Suwaid
    • 2
  • Mohammad Abubakar Kaura
    • 3
  • Irfan Sugianto
    • 1
  • Miki Hisatomi
    • 4
  • Junichi Asaumi
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, College of MedicineBayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching HospitalKanoNigeria
  3. 3.Family Dentistry Department, Faculty of DentistryBayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching HospitalKanoNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology and Oral Diagnosis, Okayama University HospitalOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

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