Optimal placement of barrier coverage in heterogeneous bistatic radar sensor networks

  • Xianghua XuEmail author
  • Chengwei Zhao
  • Zichen Jiang
  • Zongmao Cheng
  • Jinjun Chen
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue on Smart Computing and Cyber Technology for Cyberization


Barrier Coverage is an important sensor deployment issue in many industrial, consumer and military applications.The barrier coverage in bistatic radar sensor networks has attracted many researchers recently. The Bistatic Radars (BR) consist of radar signal transmitters and radar signal receivers. The effective detection area of bistatic radar is a Cassini oval area that determined by the distance between transmitter and receiver and the predefined detecting SNR threshold. Many existing works on bistatic radar barrier coverage mainly focus on homogeneous radar sensor networks. However, cooperation among different types or different physical parameters of sensors is necessary in many practical application scenarios. In this paper, we study the optimal deployment problem in heterogeneous bistatic radar networks.The object is how to maximize the detection ability of bistatic radar barrier with given numbers of radar sensors and barrier’s length. Firstly, we investigate the optimal placement strategy of single transmitter and multiple receivers, and propose the patterns of aggregate deployment. Then we study the optimal deployment of heterogeneous transmitters and receivers and introduce the optimal placement sequences of heterogeneous transmitters and receivers. Finally, we design an efficient greedy algorithm, which realize optimal barrier deployment of M heterogeneous transmitters and N receivers on a L length boundary, and maximizing the detection ability of the barrier. We theoretically proved that the placement sequence of the algorithm construction is optimal deployment solution in heterogeneous bistatic radar sensors barrier. And we validate the algorithm effectiveness through comprehensive simulation experiments.


Optimal placement Heterogeneous bistatic radar sensor network Barrier Coverage Maximum detection ability 



This work is supported by the Key Science-Technology Program of Zhejiang Province, China (2017C01065) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61370087).


  1. 1.
    Ammari, H.M.: A Unified Framework for k -coverage and Data Collection in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Academic Press Inc., Cambridge (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ammari, H.M., Das, S.K.: Centralized and clustered k-coverage protocols for wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Comput. 61(1), 118–133 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang, H.Y., Kao, L., Chang, K.P., Chen, C.: Fault-tolerance and minimum cost placement of bistatic radar sensors for belt barrier coverage. In: International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers, pp. 1–7 (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, A., Kumar, S., Lai, T.H.: Local barrier coverage in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 9(4), 491–504 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, J., Wang, B., Liu, W.: Constructing Perimeter Barrier Coverage with Bistatic Radar Sensors. Academic Press Ltd., Cambridge (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng, C.F., Tsai, K.T.: Distributed barrier coverage in wireless visual sensor networks with β-qom. IEEE Sensors J. 12(6), 1726–1735 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dutta, P.K., Arora, A.K., Bibyk, S.B.: Towards radar-enabled sensor networks. In: International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 467–474 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gong, X., Zhang, J., Cochran, D.: When target motion matters:, Doppler coverage in radar sensor networks. In: IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1169–1177 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gong, X., Zhang, J., Cochran, D., Xing, K.: Barrier coverage in bistatic radar sensor networks:cassini oval sensing and optimal placement. In: Fourteenth ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc NETWORKING and Computing, pp. 49–58 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong, X., Zhang, J., Cochran, D., Xing, K.: Optimal placement for barrier coverage in bistatic radar sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 24 (1), 259–271 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karatas, M.: Optimal deployment of heterogeneous sensor networks for a hybrid point and barrier coverage application. Computer Networks 132, 129–144 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim, H., Ben-Othman, J.: Heterbar: Construction of heterogeneous reinforced barrier in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Lett. PP(99), 1–1 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim, H., Kim, D., Li, D., Kwon, S.S., Tokuta, A.O., Cobb, J.A.: Maximum lifetime dependable barrier-coverage in wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw. 36(P1), 296–307 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar, S., Lai, T.H., Arora, A.: Barrier Coverage with Wireless Sensors. Springer, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kusy, B., Ledeczi, A., Koutsoukos, X.: Tracking mobile nodes using rf doppler shifts. In: International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SENSYS 2007, pp. 29–42. Sydney, Nsw, Australia (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, J.J., Krishnamachari, B., Kuo, C.C.J.: Impact of heterogeneous deployment on lifetime sensing coverage in sensor networks. In: 2004 First IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, 2004 IEEE SECON 2004, pp. 367–376 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, L., Zhang, B., Shen, X., Zheng, J., Yao, Z.: A study on the weak barrier coverage problem in wireless sensor networks. Computer Networks the International Journal of Computer & Telecommunications Networking 55(3), 711–721 (2011)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lim, J.H.L., Terzis, A.T., Wang, I.J.W.: Tracking a non-cooperative mobile target using low-power pulsed doppler radars. In: Local Computer Networks, pp. 913–920 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu, B., Dousse, O., Wang, J., Saipulla, A.: Strong barrier coverage of wireless sensor networks. In: ACM Interational Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc NETWORKING and Computing, MOBIHOC 2008, pp. 411–420. Hong Kong, China (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu, L., Zhang, X., Ma, H.: Exposure-path prevention in directional sensor networks using sector model based percolation. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp. 1–5 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lu, Z., Li, W.W., Pan, M.: Maximum lifetime scheduling for target coverage and data collection in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 64(2), 714–727 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nguyen, H.T.: State-of-the-art in mac protocols for underwater acoustics sensor networks. In: Emerging Directions in Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2007 Workshops: TRUST, WSOC, NCUS, UUWSN, USN, ESO, and SECUBIQ, Taipei, Taiwan, December 17-20, 2007, Proceedings, pp. 482–493 (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rahman, M.O., Razzaque, M.A., Hong, C.S.: Probabilistic sensor deployment in wireless sensor network: A new approach. In: The International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, pp. 1419–1422 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reekie, L., Chow, Y.T., Dakin, J.P.: Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor. Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saipulla, A., Westphal, C., Liu, B., Wang, J.: Barrier coverage with line-based deployed mobile sensors. Ad Hoc Netw. 11(4), 1381–1391 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tao, D., Tang, S., Zhang, H., Mao, X., Ma, H.: Strong barrier coverage in directional sensor networks. Comput. Commun. 35(8), 895–905 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, Y., Wang, X., Xie, B., Wang, D., Agrawal, D.P.: Intrusion detection in homogeneous and heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 7(6), 698–711 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang, B., Xu, H., Liu, W., Liang, H.: A novel node placement for long belt coverage in wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Comput. 62(12), 2341–2353 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang, Z., Liao, J., Cao, Q., Qi, H., Wang, Z.: Achieving k-barrier coverage in hybrid directional sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 13(7), 1443–1455 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang, B., Chen, J., Liu, W., Yang, L.T.: Minimum cost placement of bistatic radar sensors for belt barrier coverage. IEEE Trans. Comput. 65(2), 577–588 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yildiz, E., Akkaya, K., Sisikoglu, E., Sir, M.Y.: Optimal camera placement for providing angular coverage in wireless video sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Comput. 63(7), 1812–1825 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zorbas, D., Razafindralambo, T.: Prolonging network lifetime under probabilistic target coverage in wireless mobile sensor networks. Comput. Commun. 36(9), 1039–1053 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyHangzhou Dianzi UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of ScienceHangzhou Dianzi UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations