Analysis of GSM-SM Over \(\kappa -\mu\), \(\eta -\mu\) and \(\alpha -\mu\) Fading Channels

  • Hanumantharao BitraEmail author
  • Palanisamy Ponnusamy


Spatial multiplexing increases the throughput by sending multiple data bits parallelly while generalized spatial modulation (GSM) increases the spectral efficiency. By combining both these schemes, we proposed a new scheme, GSM-SM (i.e., GSM is combined with spatial multiplexing) for transmitting various data symbols at any instant of time over active transmit antennas. Consequently, GSM-SM spectral efficiency increases when compared to GSM at the price of multiple radio frequency chains. Maximum likelihood detector operation is performed at the receiver in presence and absence of channel estimation errors. The average bit error rate of GSM-SM is evaluated with fading channels viz. \(\kappa -\mu\), \(\eta -\mu\) and \(\alpha -\mu\). At a particular spectral efficiency, GSM-SM performance is compared with other existing schemes, namely GSM and spatial modulation, and the proposed scheme gives the best result. Later GSM-SM analysis is carried with the help of simulations over different scenarios.


Generalized spatial modulation Fading channel Average bit error rate ML detector Channel estimation errors Spatial multiplexing RF chain 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Technology TiruchirappalliTrichyIndia

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