Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 108, Issue 4, pp 2435–2448 | Cite as

Moore, Minkowski and Koch Curves Based Hybrid Fractal Antenna for Multiband Applications

  • Inkwinder Singh BangiEmail author
  • Jagtar Singh Sivia


Today’s world, multiband antenna has immensely beneficial for fulfill the requirements of wireless communication. In this paper, Hybrid Fractal Antenna (HFA) is designed using three popular fractal curves koch, minkowski and moore. The generator curve is created by adding minkowski curve and invert of koch curve. This hybrid generator curve is then superimposed on moore curve to get proposed HFA. FR4 material is used for the design of proposed HFA. The effect of defected ground and dielectric constant of different materials on the performance of antenna is studied. Proposed antenna is fabricated and S11 in dB is measured using Vector Network Analyzer. A comparison between simulated and measured return loss is done. It is found that simulated and measured results are agreement with each other. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR, radiation pattern, gain are described in this article. A gain of 20.1 dB is obtained at frequency 1.70 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of proposed HFA is 2870 MHz and VSWR range varies between 1.887MAX and 1.008MIN. The dimensions of proposed HFA is 41.5 × 37 mm2 which is small as compared to existing hybrid geometries in literature. This proposed HFA can be used for Bluetooth (2.4 GHz), Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g) Wireless LAN (5.5 GHz), Wireless computer networking (2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz), Wi-MAX (5.20 GHz–5.8 GHz), Satellite communication uplink (5.90 GHz), Military satellite downlink (7.25–7.30 GHz) applications.





  1. 1.
    Choukiker, Y. K., & Behera, S. K. (2012). Design of wideband fractal antenna with combination of fractal geometries. In Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choukiker, Y. K., Kumar, R. A., & Behera, S. K. (2014). Design of Hybrid Fractal Antenna for UWB applications. In IEEE ICCEET (pp. 691–693).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jamil, A., Yusoft, M. Z., Yahya, N., & Zakariya, M. A. (2011). A compact multiband hybrid meander-koch fractal antenna for WLAN USB DONGLE. In IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS) (pp. 290–293). September 25–28, Langkawi, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh, A., Sivia, J. S., & Kaur, K. (2017). Multiband hybrid microstrip patch antenna for L, S and C band applications. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 10(6), 503–509.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh, I., Sivia, J. S., & Gupta, D. (2017). Design of microstrip fractal antenna for GPS and Aircraft Surveillance Applications. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 10(6), 537–544.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaur, K., & Sivian, J. S. (2017). A compact hybrid multiband antenna for wireless application. Wireless Personal Communication, 97(4), 5917–5927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geng, J. P., Li, J. J., Jin, R. H., Ye, S., Liang, X. L., & Li, M. Z. (2009). The development of curved microstrip antenna with defected ground structure. Progress in Electromagnetics Research (PIER), 98, 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ansari, J. A., Kumari, K., Singh, A., & Mishra, A. (2012). Ultra wide band co-planar microstrip patch antenna for wireless applications. Wireless Personal Communication, 69(4), 1365–1378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ali, J. K. (2009). A new microstrip fed printed slot antenna based on moore space filling geometry. In Loughborough Antenna and Propagation Conference (pp. 449–452).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmed, H. S., Salim, A. J., & Ali, J. K. (2017). Compact dual mode microstrip band reject filters based on koch fractal geometry. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research (PIER).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baliarda, C. P., Romeu, J., & Cardama, A. (2000). The koch monopole: A small fractal antenna. IEEE Transaction Antennas Propagation, 48, 1773–1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Best, S. R. (2003). On the performance properties of koch fractal and other bent wire monopole. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 51(6), 1292–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chowdary, P. S. R., Prasad, A. M., Rao, P. M., & Auguera, J. (2015). Design and performance study of sierpinski fractal based patch antennas for multiband and miniaturization characteristics. Wireless Personal Communication, 83(3), 1713–1730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mahatthanajatuphat, C., Saleekaw, S., & Akkaraekthanlin, P. (2009). A rhombic patch monopole antenna with modifies minkowski fractal geometry for UMTS, WLAN and mobile WiMAX application. Progress in Electromagnetics Research (PIER), 89, 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhatia, S. S., & Sivia, J. S. (2016). A novel design of circular monopole antenna for wireless application. Wireless Personal Communication, 91(3), 1153–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sivia, J. S., Kaur, G., & Sarao, A. K. (2017). A modified sierpinski carpet fractal antenna for multiband application. Wireless Personal Communication, 95(4), 4269–4279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karim, M. N. A., Rahim, M. K. A., Majid, H. A., Ayop, O., Abu, M., & Zubir, F. (2010). Log periodic fractal koch antenna for UHF band applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research (PIER), 100, 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singh, A., & Singh, S. (2015). Design and optimization of modified sierpinski fractal antenna for broadband applications. Applied Soft Computing, 38, 843–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Azaro, R., Debiasi, L., Zeni, E., Benedetti, M., Rocca, P., & Massa, A. (2009). A hybrid prefractal three band antenna for multistandard mobile wireless applications. IEEE Antenna and Wireless Propagation Letters, 8, 905–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharma, N., & Sharma, V. (2017). A design of microstrip patch antenna using hybrid fractal slot for wireless applications. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9(4), 2491–2497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lizzi, L., & Oliveri, G. (2010). Hybrid design of a fractal shaped GSM/UMTS antenna. Journal Electromagnetic Waves and Application, 24(5), 707–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chn, W. L., Wang, G. M., & Zhang, C. X. (2008). Small size microstrip patch antenna combining koch and sierpinski fractal shapes. IEEE Antenna Wireless Propagation Letter, 7, 738–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singh, A., & Singh, S. (2015). A trapezoidal microstrip patch antenna on photonic crystal substrate for high speed THz applications. Photonics and Nanostructures—Fundamentals and Applications, 69, 52–62.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nagaraju, V., Venu Madhav, P., & Manoj Kumar, V. (2013). Optimization of patch size of fractal hybrid antenna for GPS application. IJERA, 3(1), 2003–2008.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bangi, I. S., Sivia, J. S., & Kaureana, G. S. (2015). Minkowski and circular curves based wide band microstrip fractal antenna. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 15(6), 52–62.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kenari, M. A., Naser-Moghadasi, M., Sadeghzadeh, R. A., Virdee, B. S., & Limiti, E. (2016). Dual-band RFID tag antenna based on the Hilbert-curve fractal for HF and UHF applications. IET Circuits Devices System, 10(2), 140–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Punjabi UniversityPunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations