Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 108, Issue 2, pp 1209–1225 | Cite as

Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Low Cost Softwear Antenna Sensing Various Temperatures in Detection of Lung Water Accumulation and Congestive Heart Failure

  • I. Rexiline SheebaEmail author
  • T. Jayanthy


Medical science says one of the earliest symptoms of the cardiac disorder is Pulmonary Edema generally said to be fluid accumulation inside the lungs which leads to Congestive heart failure. This accumulation of fluid has high dielectric constant and causes major changes in the electrical properties of the lung tissue, which can be identified by using microwave techniques. Therefore a novel method is used to find the earliest symptom of fluid accumulation first so that cardiac disorder can be analyzed and prevented. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The proportions of SAR values in the skin, fat, and muscle are considered about 3:2:1, based on which the softwear antenna was designed, accordingly good radiation pattern, gain and return loss was preset on the human model and the performance of the antenna was observed. The earlier symptoms to identify lung water is abnormal body temperature in particular fever, cold and cough. An experimental analysis has been done with various temperature related to human body abnormal temperature, by using the fabricated antenna performance for various temperature and shifting in various frequencies were noted by using the network analyzer.


Softwear antenna Soft substrate Dielectric constant, Fluid accumulation in lung Congestive heart failure Specific absorption rate (SAR) Human body temperature 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sathyabama Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Panimalar Institute of TechnologyChennaiIndia

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