Hybrid Cluster Head Election for WSN Based on Firefly and Harmony Search Algorithms
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Design of energy efficient routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a great challenge for researchers. Recently, WSNs have gained lot of popularity and many energy efficient routing solutions are proposed. Most of the existing routing protocols focus on cluster head election and ignoring other important aspects of routing such cluster formation, data aggregation, etc. This research article presents a hybrid cluster head election for WSN based on firefly and harmony search algorithms. The contributions of the proposed protocols are (1) two level cluster head election strategy. In the first stage harmony search algorithm is used to determine initial set of energy efficient cluster head nodes that are sufficiently separated from on another by certain optimal distance. Then tentatively elected cluster head nodes are refined by firefly algorithm by considering the parameters such as node density, cluster compactness and energy to be consumed. Sometimes nature inspired optimization techniques may end up in early convergence and to avoid such problems, cluster head election scheme is divided at two levels. (2) a refined cluster formation strategy is designed where a normal node has privilege of joining to cluster head node either based on distance based metric or based on residual energy of cluster heads. This process of cluster formation helps in reduced energy consumption. The presented protocol is compared with some of the well-known clustering protocols such as LEACH, LEACH-C, EOICHD, and simple firefly based routing protocol based on the evaluation metrics such as number of alive nodes, energy consumption of network, number of packets received by Base Station, First Node Dead, Half Node Dead and Last Node Dead. Implementation is carried out using Network Simulator (NS 2.34) and results show that proposed hybrid cluster head election scheme outperforms the mentioned routing protocols.
KeywordsCluster formation Cluster head election Energy efficiency Firefly algorithm Harmony search algrotihm Wireless Sensor Network
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