Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 4413–4429 | Cite as

QoS-Based Protocol for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Fouzi SemchedineEmail author
  • Nadir Ait Saidi
  • Larbi Belouzir
  • Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune


A sensor network consists of many sensor nodes scattered throughout a geographic area. The sensor nodes communicate by radio to ensure the network operations and to route the data to the sink. The problem we are interested in this work relates to the optimization of the quality of service (QoS) in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we proposed a routing protocol adaptive to the QoS at the network layer. Therefore, a variant of the RPAR protocol was proposed and we called: Greedy Realtime Power Aware Routing (GRPAR), to ensure an optimal quality of service. Simulation results showed that GRPAR improves the performance compared to RPAR in terms of end-to-end delay, packets delivery ratio and energy conservation.


Wireless sensor networks Quality of service Routing protocols RPAR Discrete events simulation 


  1. 1.
    Rehmani, M. H., Rachedi, A., Lohier, S., Alves, T., & Poussot, B. (2014). Intelligent antenna selection decision in IEEE 802.15. 4 wireless sensor networks: An experimental analysis. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 40(2), 443–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ghafoor, S., Rehmani, M. H., Cho, S., & Park, S. H. (2014). An efficient trajectory design for mobile sink in a wireless sensor network. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 40(7), 2089–2100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akyildiz, I. F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., & Cayirci, E. (2002). A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 40(8), 102–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Karl, H., Lbbers, M., & Nieberg, T. (2003, November). A data aggregation framework for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the Dutch Technology Foundation ProRISC workshop on circuits, systems and signal processing Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braginsky, D., & Estrin, D. (2002, September). Rumor routing algorthim for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications (pp. 22–31). ACM.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chu, M., Haussecker, H., & Zhao, F. (2002). Scalable information-driven sensor querying and routing for ad hoc heterogeneous sensor networks. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 16(3), 293–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hancke, G. P., & Leuschner, C. J. (2007). SEER: A simple energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. South African Computer Journal, 39, 17–24.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kulik, J., Heinzelman, W., & Balakrishnan, H. (2002). Negotiation-based protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor networks. Wireless Networks, 8(2/3), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., & Estrin, D. (2000, August). Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking (pp. 56–67). ACM.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schurgers, C., & Srivastava, M. B. (2001). Energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. In IEEE military communications conference, 2001. MILCOM 2001. Communications for network-centric operations: Creating the information force (Vol. 1, pp. 357–361). IEEE.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindsey, S., & Raghavendra, C. S. (2002). PEGASIS: Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems. In 2002 IEEE cerospace conference proceedings (Vol. 3, pp. 3–1125). IEEE.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindsey, S., Raghavendra, C., & Sivalingam, K. (2001, April). Data gathering in sensor networks using the energy* delay metric. In Proceedings of the 15th international parallel & distributed processing symposium (p. 30188b). IEEE.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Banka, T., Tandon, G., & Jayasumana, A. P. (2005, April). Zonal rumor routing for wireless sensor networks. In International conference on information technology: coding and computing, 2005. ITCC 2005 (Vol. 2, pp. 562–567). IEEE.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heinzelman, W. B., Chandrakasan, A. P., & Balakrishnan, H. (2002). An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 1(4), 660–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manjeshwar, A., & Agrawal, D. P. (2001, April). TEEN: A routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In null (p. 30189a). IEEE.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, B., Jamieson, K., Balakrishnan, H., & Morris, R. (2002). Span: An energy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks. Wireless Networks, 8(5), 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rodoplu, V., & Meng, T. H. (1999). Minimum energy mobile wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 17(8), 1333–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Takagi, H., & Kleinrock, L. (1984). Optimal transmission ranges for randomly distributed packet radio terminals. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 32(3), 246–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu, Y., Heidemann, J., & Estrin, D. (2001, July). Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing. In Proceedings of the 7th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking (pp. 70–84). ACM.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu, Y., Govindan, R., & Estrin, D. (2001). Geographical and energy aware routing: A recursive data dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks. Technical report ucla/csd-tr-01-0023, UCLA Computer Science Department.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, Q., Aslam, J., & Rus, D. (2001, May). Hierarchical power-aware routing in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the DIMACS workshop on pervasive networking.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Callaway, E. H, Jr. (2003). Wireless sensor networks: Architectures and protocols. Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    He, T., Stankovic, J., Lu, C., & Abdelzaher, T. (2003, May). SPEED: A stateless protocol for real-time communication in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on distributed computing systems, 2003 (pp. 46–55). IEEE.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu, C., Blum, B. M., Abdelzaher, T. F., Stankovic, J., & He, T. (2002). Rap: A real-time communication architecture for large-scale wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the eighth IEEE real-time and embedded technology and applications symposium, 2002 (pp. 55–66). IEEE.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Felemban, E., Lee, C. G., & Ekici, E. (2006). MMSPEED: Multipath Multi-SPEED protocol for QoS guarantee of reliability and. Timeliness in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 5(6), 738–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chipara, O., He, Z., Xing, G., Chen, Q., Wang, X., Lu, C., et al. (2006, June). Real-time power-aware routing in sensor networks. In 14th IEEE international workshop on quality of service, 2006. IWQoS 2006 (pp. 83-92). IEEE.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Basaran, C., & Kang, K. D. (2009). Quality of service in wireless sensor networks. In Guide to wireless sensor networks (pp. 305–321). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    IEEE std 802.15.4., (2003). Wireless medium access control (MAC) and physical layer specifications for low rate wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Technical report, IEEE.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sohrabi, K., Gao, J., Ailawadhi, V., & Pottie, G. J. (2000). Protocols for self-organization of a wireless sensor network. IEEE Personal Communications, 7(5), 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zitouni, R. (2006). Routage a basse consommation d’énergie dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil. Master Thesis, University of Bejaia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fouzi Semchedine
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadir Ait Saidi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Larbi Belouzir
    • 2
    • 3
  • Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (IOMP)University of SetifSetifAlgeria
  2. 2.Research Unit LaMOSUniversity of BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria
  3. 3.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations