ITU TWDM-PON module for ns-3

  • 1 Accesses


Optical fiber access systems are one of the driving forces behind the success of the Internet. Time- and wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM-PON) is regarded as the key technology for future Internet access networks. In this paper, we propose an ITU TWDM-PON module for the ns-3 network simulator and describe its concept and design specifications. The proposed module is developed based on the XG-PON module for ns-3. It can simulate G.989 standard-compliant data packet transmission in the upstream and downstream directions using multiple wavelength channels. It enables us to evaluate the performance issues that arise with the TWDM-PON development, including various dynamic bandwidth allocation and dynamic wavelength allocation algorithms. The proposed module is expected to become a good platform for studying future access networks composed of TWDM-PON and mobile networks by enabling us to simulate dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15


  1. 1.

    Alvarez, P., Marchetti, N., Payne, D., & Ruffini, M. (2014). Backhauling mobile systems with XG-PON using grouped assured bandwidth. In 19th European conference on networks and optical communications-(NOC) (pp. 91–96). IEEE.

  2. 2.

    Arokkiam, J., Wu, X., Brown, K. N., Sreenan, C. J., et al. (2014). Experimental evaluation of TCP performance over 10Gb/s passive optical networks (XG-PON). In Global communications conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 2223–2228). IEEE.

  3. 3.

    Arokkiam, J. A., Brown, K. N., & Sreenan, C. J. (2015). Refining the GIANT dynamic bandwidth allocation mechanism for XG-PON. In International conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1006–1011). IEEE.

  4. 4.

    Chang, C. H. (2008). Dynamic bandwidth allocation MAC protocols for gigabit-capable passive optical networks. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hertfordshire, UK.

  5. 5.

    Das, T., Gumaste, A., Lodha, A., Mathew, A., & Ghani, N. (2011). Generalized framework and analysis for bandwidth scheduling in GPONs and NGPONs-the-out-of-approach. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 29(19), 2875–2892.

  6. 6.

    IEEE Standard 8023ah. (2004). Ethernet in the first mile.

  7. 7.

    IEEE Standard 8023av. (2009). 10gbit/s ethernet passive optical networks.

  8. 8.

    ITU-T G984 Series Recommendations. (2008). Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (gpon).

  9. 9.

    ITU-T G987 Series Recommendations. (2012). 10 gigabit-capable passive optical network (xg-pon).

  10. 10.

    ITU-T G989 Series Recommendations. (2016). 40-Gigabit-capable passive optical networks 2 (NG-PON2).

  11. 11.

    Khan, A., Bilal, S., & Othman, M. (2013). A performance comparison of network simulators for wireless networks. In International conference on control system, computing and engineering (ICCSCE) (pp. 34–38). IEEE.

  12. 12.

    Luo, Y., Zhou, X., Effenberger, F., Yan, X., Peng, G., Qian, Y., et al. (2013). Time-and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation pon stage 2 (NG-PON2). Journal of Lightwave Technology, 31(4), 587–593.

  13. 13.

    Nakayama, Y., & Yasunaga, R. (2019). ITU TWDM-PON module for ns-3 network simulator. In Proceedings of SIMUtools 2018/2019.

  14. 14.

    Nesset, D. (2015). NG-PON2 technology and standards. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 33(5), 1136–1143.

  15. 15.

    ns-3. (2019). Retrieved July 2019.

  16. 16.

    Oliveira, R., Frances, C., Costa, J., Viana, D., Lima, M., & Teixeira, A. (2014). Analysis of the cost-effective digital radio over fiber system in the NG-PON2 context. In 16th international telecommunications network strategy and planning symposium (networks) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

  17. 17.

    OPNET Modeler. (2019). Retrieved from Retrieved July 2019.

  18. 18.

    Peng, Z., & Radcliffe, P. (2011). Modeling and simulation of ethernet passive optical network (epon) experiment platform based on opnet modeler. In 3rd international conference on communication software and networks (ICCSN) (pp. 99–104). IEEE.

  19. 19.

    Pinto, T., Farias, J. E., & Reis, J. D. (2015). Simulation and experimental results for up to 40 Gbit/s/user coherent DWDM-PON systems. In International workshop on telecommunications (IWT) (pp. 1–4). IEEE.

  20. 20.

    Rampfl, S. (2013). Network simulation and its limitations. In Proceeding zum seminar future internet (FI), Innovative Internet Technologien und Mobilkommunikation (IITM) und autonomous communication networks (ACN) (Vol. 57).

  21. 21.

    Song, H., Kim, B. W., & Mukherjee, B. (2009). Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON. Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 27(2), 134–142.

  22. 22.

    Wu, X., Brown, K. N., Sreenan, C. J., Alvarez, P., Ruffini, M., Marchetti, N., Payne, D., & Doyle, L. (2013). An XG-PON module for the ns-3 network simulator. In Proceedings of the 6th international ICST conference on simulation tools and techniques (pp. 195–202).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Yu Nakayama.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nakayama, Y., Yasunaga, R. ITU TWDM-PON module for ns-3. Wireless Netw (2020) doi:10.1007/s11276-019-02236-8

Download citation


  • ns-3
  • Wavelength allocation
  • Bandwidth allocation