Joint QoE-based user association and efficient cell–carrier distribution for enabling fully hybrid spectrum sharing approach in 5G mmWave cellular networks

  • Mothana L. AttiahEmail author
  • A. A. M. Isa
  • Zahriladha Zakaria
  • Mowafak K. Mohsen
  • M. K. Abdulhameed
  • Ahmed M. Dinar


Densifying the network by adding more minicell towers or relays throughout a hot spot area while extensively reusing the available spectrum is an essential choice to improve QoS. Unfortunately, this approach can be prohibitively costly. One possible solution to reduce the capital and operating expenditure in such overdensified networks is the adoption of the spectrum-sharing approach. However, both approaches would complicate the interference phenomenon either among inter- or intraoperators, which may cause serious performance degradation. In this paper, a fully hybrid spectrum-sharing (FHSS) approach aided by an efficient cell–carrier distribution was proposed with consideration to the interference dilemma. Moreover, an adaptive hybrid QoE-based mmWave user association (mUA) scheme was presented to assign a typical user to the serving mmWave base station (mBS), which offers the highest achievable data rate. The proposed FHSS approach (with the presented QoE-based mUA) was compared with recent works and with both FHSS approach using the conventional max-SINR-based mUA, which assigns a typical user to the tagged mBS carrying the highest signal-to-interference-plus noise ratio and the baseline scenario (licensed spectrum access). In particular, three spectrum access methods (licensed, semipooled, and fully pooled) were integrated in a hybrid manner to engage improved data rates to users. Numerical results show that the joint cell–carrier distribution and FHSS approach with QoE-based mUA outperform both baselines FHSS with the max-SINR mUA scheme and the licensed spectrum access. Furthermore, results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of both operators’ independence and fairness.


Spectrum sharing approach 5G mmWave communication mmWave user association Multi-IMNOs Quality of Experience (QoE) Operator’s fairness Operator’s independence 



The authors gratefully acknowledge UTeM Zamalah Scheme, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), and the support from the Centre for Research and Innovation Management (CRIM), Centre of Excellence, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation (CeTRI), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik and Kejuruteraan Komputer (FKeKK)Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)MelakaMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering Technical CollegeMiddle Technical UniversityBaghdadIraq

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