Decode-and-forward cooperative transmission in wireless sensor networks based on physical-layer network coding

  • Bo Li
  • Junyi Yang
  • Hongjuan YangEmail author
  • Gongliang Liu
  • Ruofei Ma
  • Xiyuan Peng


In order to tackle the problem of reducing the transmission delay of multi-data acquisition source nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a cooperative method based on decode-and-forward (DF) and physical-layer network coding. In this proposed method, the two source nodes simultaneously transmit the respective information to the relay node and the data sink node using the orthogonal carriers. The relay node demodulates the received information separately from two source nodes and employs quadrature phase shift keying to modulate these information before forwarding them. The data sink node decodes the information of two source nodes using log likelihood ratio based on the signals received from the direct link and the relay link. Simulation results of bit error rate and system throughput show that the cooperative method can effectively improve the performance of the cooperative system compared with the traditional DF.


Decode-and-forward Physical-layer network coding Cooperative communication Throughput 



This work is supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61671184, and 61801144), Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Nos. ZR2018PF001 and ZR2014FP016), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. HIT. NSRIF. 201720 and 2016100).


  1. 1.
    Ikki, S. S., & Ahmed, M. H. (2010). Performance analysis of adaptive decode-and-forward cooperative diversity networks with best-relay selection. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 58(1), 68–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lateef, H. Y., Mclernon, D., & Ghogho, M. (2011). Performance analysis of multi-user multi-hop cooperative relay networks over nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Communications Letters, 15(7), 776–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clarke, P., & De Lamare, R. C. (2012). Transmit diversity and relay selection algorithms for multirelay cooperative MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 61(3), 1084–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sendonaris, A., Erkip, E., & Aazhang, B. (2003). User cooperation diversity-Part I: System description. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 51(11), 1927–1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sendonaris, A., Erkip, E., & Aazhang, B. (2003). User cooperation diversity-Part II: Implementation aspects and performance analysis. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 51(11), 1939–1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laneman, J. N., Tse, D. N. C., & Wornell, G. W. (2004). Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 50(12), 3062–3080.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahlswede, R., Cai, N., Li, S.-Y. R., et al. (2000). Network information flow. IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, 46(4), 1204–1216.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, S.-Y. R., Yeung, R. W., & Ning, Cai. (2003). Linear network coding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 49(2), 371–381.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sengupta, S., Rayanchu, S., & Banerjee, S. (2010). Network coding-aware routing in wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Networking, 18(4), 1158–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin, H., Lin, Y., & Kang, H.-J. (2013). Adaptive network coding for broadband wireless access networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 24(1), 4–18.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lhieochan, S., & Hossain, E. (2013). Channel assignment for throughput optimization in multichannel multiradio wireless mesh networks using network coding. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 12(1), 118–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jia, M., Gu, X., Guo, Q., Xiang, W., & Zhang, N. (2016). Broadband hybrid satellite-terrestrial communication systems based on cognitive radio toward 5G. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(6), 96–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jia, M., Liu, X., Gu, X., & Guo, Q. (2017). Joint cooperative spectrum sensing and channel selection optimization for satellite communication systems based on cognitive radio. International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, 35(2), 139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jia, M., Liu, X., Yin, Z., Guo, Q., & Gu, X. (2016). Joint cooperative spectrum sensing and spectrum opportunity for satellite cluster communication networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 58(C), 231–238.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang, S., Liew, S. C., Lam, P. P. (2006). Hot topic: Physical layer network coding. In The 12th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking (pp. 358–365). ACM SIGMOBILE, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, T., & Giannakis, G. B. (2008). Complex field network coding for multiuser cooperative communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(3), 561–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Islam, T., Nasri, A., & Schober, R. (2012). Network coded multi-source cooperative communication in BICM-OFDM networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 11(9), 3180–3193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peng, M., Liu, H., Wang, W., et al. (2010). Cooperative network coding with MIMO transmission in wireless decode-and-forward relay networks. IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, 59(7), 3577–3588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai)WeihaiChina
  2. 2.Auto Test and Control InstituteHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations