Advertisement

Physical layer security schemes for MIMO systems: an overview

  • Reem MelkiEmail author
  • Hassan N. Noura
  • Mohammad M. Mansour
  • Ali Chehab
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Physical layer security (PLS) has become an increasingly attractive topic since it promises current and future wireless systems both reliable and secure communication, without imposing any assumptions on the computational power of the eavesdroppers. PLS benefits from the randomness property of the wireless channel, which provides better immunity and prevents different attacks. On the other hand, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system has emerged as a key technology to support high data rates and improved energy and spectral efficiency, in addition to overcoming the effect of shadowing and fading. Recently, MIMO-based PLS has been addressed in the literature due to its wide adoption and its essential role in wireless communication systems. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of various MIMO-based PLS techniques that target all kinds of security services namely, key generation and distribution, data confidentiality, authentication, and availability. With this overview, readers will have a better understanding of the MIMO-based PLS techniques present in the literature, their current limitations, and challenges.

Keywords

Wireless networks Security Physical layer PLS Security services MIMO system 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Saxena, N., Roy, A., Sahu, B., & Kim, H. (2017). Efficient IoT gateway over 5G wireless: A new design with prototype and implementation results. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(2), 97–105.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ford, R., Zhang, M., Mezzavilla, M., Dutta, S., Rangan, S., & Zorzi, M. (2017). Achieving ultra-low latency in 5G millimeter wave cellular networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(3), 196–203.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun, S., MacCartney, G., & Rappaport, T. (2017). A novel millimeter-wave channel simulator and applications for 5G wireless communications. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1–7). IEEE.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rappaport, T., Xing, Y., et al. (2017). Overview of millimeter wave communications for fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks-with a focus on propagation models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.02557
  5. 5.
    Wong, V., Schober, R., Ng, D., & Wang, L. (2017). Key technologies for 5G wireless systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho, Y., Kim, J., Yang, W., & Kang, C. (2010). MIMO-OFDM wireless communications with MATLAB. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fan, W., Carton, I., et al. (2017). A step toward 5G in 2020: Low-cost OTA performance evaluation of massive MIMO base stations. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 59(1), 38–47.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Molisch, A., et al. (2017). Hybrid beamforming for massive MIMO: A survey. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(9), 134–141.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Umebayashi, K., et al. (2014). A study on secure pilot signal design for OFDM systems. In Asia-Pacific signal and information processing association annual summit and conference (APSIPA) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Massey, J. (1986). Cryptography—a selective survey. Digital Communications, 85, 3–25.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bloch, M., et al. (2008). Wireless information-theoretic security. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 54(6), 2515–2534.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shannon, C. (1949). Communication theory of secrecy systems. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 28(4), 656–715.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ahlswede, R., et al. (1993). Common randomness in information theory and cryptography. I. Secret sharing. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 39(4), 1121–1132.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wyner, A. (1975). The wire-tap channel. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 54(8), 1355–1387.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bloch, M., & Barros, J. (2011). Physical-layer security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mukherjee, A., et al. (2014). Principles of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(3), 1550–1573.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    MIMO antenna beamforming: Radio-electronics.com. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/antenna-beamforming.php. Accessed on 01 April 2018
  18. 18.
    Gibalina, Z., et al. (2018). Estimation of capabilities of cooperative CubeSat systems based on Alamouti transmission scheme. In Systems of signal synchronization, generating and processing in telecommunications (SYNCHROINFO) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shehab, W., & Al-qudah, Z. (2017). Singular value decomposition: Principles and applications in multiple input multiple output communication system. International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 9(1), 13–21.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdelrahman, R.B.M., Mustafa, A.B.A., & Osman, A.A. (2015). A comparison between IEEE 802.11 n and ac standards. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), 17(5), 30–34.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yan, H., & Lu, I. (2019). Asynchronous reception effects on distributed massive MIMO–OFDM system. IEEE Transactions on Communications.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2908401
  22. 22.
    Schindler, D., et al. (2018). MIMO–OFDM radar using a linear frequency modulated carrier to reduce sampling requirements. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 66(7), 3511–3520.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rahmatallah, Y., & Mohan, S. (2013). Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems: A survey and taxonomy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 15(4), 1567–1592.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bingham, J. (1990). Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come. IEEE Communications Magazine, 28(5), 5–14.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prasad, R. (2004). OFDM for wireless communications systems. Norwood: Artech House.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Concepts of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and 802.11 WLAN. http://rfmw.em.keysight.com/wireless/helpfiles/89600b/webhelp/subsystems/wlan-ofdm/content/ofdm_basicprinciplesoverview.htm. Accessed on 01 April 2018.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    He, Q., & Schmeink, A. (2015). Comparison and evaluation between FBMC and OFDM systems. In Proceedings of the international ITG workshop on smart antennas (WSA) (pp. 1–7). VDE.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roessler, A. (2016). 5G waveform candidates application note. Technical Report. 1MA271. Munich: Rohde & Schwarz.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barker, E., et al. (2012). Recommendation for key management part 1: General (revision 3). NIST Special Publication, 800(57), 1–147.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang, J., et al. (2015). Verification of key generation from individual OFDM subcarrier’s channel response. In Proceedings of the IEEE global communication conference workshops (GC workshops) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rahbari, H., & Krunz, M. (2017). Exploiting frame preamble waveforms to support new physical-layer functions in OFDM-based 802.11 systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 16(6), 3775–3786.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shannon, C. (1949). Communication theory of secrecy systems. Bell Systems Technical Journal, 28, 656–715.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Paar, C., & Pelzl, J. (2009). Understanding cryptography: A textbook for students and practitioners. Berlin: Springer.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wankhede, S.B. (2019). Study of network-based DoS attacks. In Nanoelectronics, circuits and communication systems (Vol. 511, pp. 611–616). Singapore: Springer. Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang, F., et al. (2017). Poster abstract: Security in uplink MU-MIMO networks. In V. Nath, JK Mandal (Eds.), IEEE/ACM second international conference on internet-of-things design and implementation (IoTDI) (pp. 351–352).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tomasin, S. (2017). Comparison between asymmetric and symmetric channel-based authentication for MIMO systems. In International ITG workshop on smart antennas (WSA) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xiao, L., et al. (2017). Game theoretic study on channel-based authentication in MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(8), 7474–7484.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xiao, L., et al. (2016). Channel-based authentication game in MIMO systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Topal, O., et al. (2017). Space-frequency grouping based key extraction for MIMO–OFDM systems. In International Symposium on wireless communication systems (ISWCS) (pp. 320–324).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chen, K., & Natarajan, B. (2016). Evaluating node reliability in cooperative MIMO networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 11(7), 1453–1460.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cheng, L., et al. (2015). Secret key generation via random beamforming in stationary environment. In Proceedings of the international conference on wireless communications and signal processing (WCSP) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yakovlev, V., et al. (2016). Secret key agreement based on a communication through wireless MIMO fading channels. In Federated conference on computer science and information systems (FedCSIS) (pp. 823–830).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Qin, D., & Ding, Z. (2016). Exploiting multi-antenna non-reciprocal channels for shared secret key generation. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 11(12), 2693–2705.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen, K., et al. (2015). Secret key generation rate with power allocation in relay-based LTE-A networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 10(11), 2424–2434.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2017). Secret key establishment technique using channel state information driven phase randomisation in multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. IET Information Security, 11(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Choi, J. (2017). Secret key transmission for OFDM based machine type communications. Journal of Communications and Networks, 19(4), 363–370.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Choi, J., & Ha, J. (2016). Secret key transmission based on channel reciprocity for secure IoT. In European conference on networks and communications (EuCNC) (pp. 388–392).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Furqan, H., et al. (2016). Secret key generation using channel quantization with SVD for reciprocal MIMO channels. In International Symposium on wireless communication systems (ISWCS) (pp. 597–602).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang, Y., & Zhang, L. (2017). High security orthogonal factorized channel scrambling scheme with location information embedded for MIMO-based VLC system. In IEEE Proceedings of the vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2016). Secret key exchange under physical layer security using MIMO private random precoding in FDD systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2015). A MIMO precoding based physical layer security technique for key exchange encryption. In IEEE Proceedings of the vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2017). Secret key exchange using private random precoding in MIMO FDD and TDD systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(6), 4823–4833.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yaacoub, E. (2016). On secret key generation with massive MIMO antennas using time-frequency-space dimensions. In IEEE Middle East conference on antennas and propagation (MECAP) (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2017). Secret key exchange and authentication via randomized spatial modulation and phase shifting. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 67(3), 2165–2177.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Taha, H., & Alsusa, E. (2017). PHY-SEC: Secret key exchange and authentication via random spatial modulation and phase shifting. In IEEE proceedings of the international wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC) (pp. 1327–1332).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chen, X., Ng, D., Gerstacker, W., & Chen, H. (2017). A survey on multiple-antenna techniques for physical layer security. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 19(2), 1027–1053.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Guan, K., et al. (2016). A computationally efficient shift-register based information scrambling approach to physical layer security in MIMO-SDM systems. In Optical fiber communications conference and exhibition (OFC) (pp. 1–3).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Guan, K., et al. (2015). Enhanced physical layer security of MIMO-SDM systems through information scrambling. In European conference on optical communication (ECOC) (pp. 1–3).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tanigawa, Y., et al. (2017). A physical layer security scheme employing imaginary receiver for multiuser MIMO–OFDM systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ahmed, M., & Bai, L. (2017). Space time block coding aided physical layer security in Gaussian MIMO channels. In International Bhurban conference on applied sciences and technology (IBCAST) (pp. 805–808).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liu, Y., et al. (2017). Secrecy capacity analysis of artificial noisy MIMO channels—an approach based on ordered eigenvalues of Wishart matrices. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 12(3), 617–630.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Li, G., & Hu, A. (2016). Virtual MIMO-based cooperative beamforming and jamming scheme for the clustered wireless sensor network security. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference communications China (ICCC), (pp. 2246–2250).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen, X., et al. (2015). Security in MIMO wireless hybrid channel with artificial noise. In International conference on cyber security of smart cities, industrial control system and communications (SSIC) (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shafie, A., et al. (2017). Hybrid spatio-temporal artificial noise design for secure MIMOME–OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(5), 3871–3886.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kozai, Y., & Saba, T. (2015). An artificial fast fading generation scheme for physical layer security of MIMO–OFDM systems. In International conference on signal processing and communication systems (ICSPCS) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li, X., et al. (2017). Hybrid massive MIMO for secure transmissions against stealthy eavesdroppers. IEEE Communications Letters, 21(1), 81–84.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Khandaker, M., et al. (2017). Constructive interference based secure precoding. In IEEE proceedings of the international Symposium on information theory (ISIT), (pp. 2875–2879).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chen, X., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Mode selection in MU-MIMO downlink networks: A physical-layer security perspective. IEEE Systems Journal, 11(2), 1128–1136.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    El Shafie, A., et al. (2016). Enhancing the PHY-layer security of MIMO buffer-aided relay networks. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 5(4), 400–403.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang, L., et al. (2016). The performance of the MIMO physical layer security system with imperfect CSI. In IEEE conference on communications and network security (CNS) (pp. 346–347).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chen, B., et al. (2016). Original symbol phase rotated secure transmission against powerful massive MIMO eavesdropper. IEEE Access, 4, 3016–3025.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chen, B., et al. (2016). Securing uplink transmission for lightweight single-antenna UEs in the presence of a massive MIMO eavesdropper. IEEE Access, 4, 5374–5384.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhang, L., et al. (2017). Non-linear transceiver design for secure communications with artificial noise-assisted MIMO relay. IET Communications, 11(6), 930–935.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yaacoub, E., & Al-Husseini, M. (2017). Achieving physical layer security with massive MIMO beamforming. In European conference on antennas and propagation (EUCAP) (pp. 1753–1757).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tang, J., et al. (2015). Combining MIMO beamforming with security codes to achieve unconditional communication security. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference on communications in China (ICCC) (pp. 105–109).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tang, J., & Wen, H., et al. (2015). Combining MIMO beamforming with security codes to achieve unconditional communication security. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference on communications in China (ICCC) (pp. 105–109).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wen, H., et al. (2014). Achieving secure communications over wiretap channels via security codes from resilient functions. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 3(3), 273–276.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zhang, Y., et al. (2015). Joint transmit antenna selection and jamming for security enhancement in MIMO wiretap channels. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference on communications in China (ICCC) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jayasinghe, K., et al. (2015). Physical layer security for relay assisted MIMO D2D communication. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference on communications workshop (ICCW) (pp. 651–656).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fan, Y., et al. (2017). Physical layer security based on interference alignment in K-User MIMO Y wiretap channels. IEEE Access, 5, 5747–5759.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gong, S., et al. (2017). Millimeter-wave secrecy beamforming designs for two-way amplify-and-forward MIMO relaying networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(3), 2059–2071.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Qassim, Y., et al. (2017). Post-quantum hybrid security mechanism for MIMO systems. In International conference on computing, networking and communications (ICNC) (pp. 684–689).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lei, H., et al. (2017). On secure underlay MIMO cognitive radio networks with energy harvesting and transmit antenna selection. IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, 1(2), 192–203.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kalantari, A., et al. (2016). Directional modulation via symbol-level precoding: A way to enhance security. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 10(8), 1478–1493.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hafez, M., et al. (2017). Secure spatial multiple access using directional modulation. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 17, 563–573.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Li, Z., et al. (2015). Cooperative jamming for secure communications in MIMO cooperative cognitive radio networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 7609–7614).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Li, L., et al. (2016). Improving wireless physical layer security via exploiting co-channel interference. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 10(8), 1433–1448.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ahn, S., et al. (2016). Enhancing physical-layer security in MISO wiretap channel with pilot-assisted channel estimation: Beamforming design for pilot jamming. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference on signal processing and communication systems (ICSPCS) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yan, Q., et al. (2016). Jamming resilient communication using MIMO interference cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 11(7), 1486–1499.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    McCune, E. (2000). DSSS vs. FHSS narrowband interference performance issues. Magazine RF Signal Processing, 90–104. http://rfdesign.com
  92. 92.
    Javed, I., et al. (2017). Novel schemes for interference-resilient OFDM wireless communication. International Journal of Communication Systems, 30(6), e3095.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Basciftci, Y., et al. (2015). Securing massive MIMO at the physical layer. In IEEE conference on communications and network security (CNS) (pp. 272–280).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sodagari, S., & Clancy, T. (2012). Efficient jamming attacks on MIMO channels. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 852–856). IEEE.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Do, T., et al. (2017). Jamming-resistant receivers for the massive MIMO uplink. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 13(1), 210–223.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shen, W., et al. (2014). MCR decoding: A MIMO approach for defending against wireless jamming attacks. In IEEE Proceedings of the conference on communications and network security (CNS), (pp. 133–138). IEEE.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shen, W., et al. (2015). No time to demodulate-fast physical layer verification of friendly jamming. In IEEE proceedings of the military communications conference (MILCOM) (pp. 653–658). IEEE.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Li, L., & Chigan, C. (2016). A virtual MIMO based anti-jamming strategy for cognitive radio networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chaturvedi, P., & Gupta, K. (2013). Detection and prevention of various types of jamming attacks in wireless networks. IRACST-International Journal of Computer Networks and Wireless Communications (IJCNWC), 3(2), 2250–3501.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations