An experimental measurement analysis of congestion over converged fixed and mobile networks

  • Yekta Turk
  • Engin ZeydanEmail author


Unified convergent networks (for fixed and mobile services) are considered to be an important step towards diversifying the set of services operators can provide for their end-users. Although there has been a huge interest to unified convergent networks among mobile network operators (MNOs) and fixed network operators, the convergence is rather slow due to different factors such as regulation, security, policies, spectrum and competitors. Moreover, each operators have different long term strategies and position themselves based on these policies in unified convergent networks. In this paper, we investigate unified fixed and mobile deployment strategy as a unified service, which is different than typical leased line approach that is frequently utilized with no unification or (convergence). We present different QoS strategies of MNOs before and after unified convergent networks and introduce characteristics, benefits and limitations of these strategies. For validation purposes of various QoS strategies, we build a real-world experimental testbed in an operator environment. Our experimental results reveal how emerging services (broadband Internet, voice, cellular) are affected in the studied QoS policies during congestion inside the unified convergent networks architecture for different MNOs.


Unified convergent networks QoS Measurements Real-world testbed Experiments 


  1. 1.
    ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). (2018). IMT traffic estimates for the years 2020 to 2030 (M.2370-0 Report). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  2. 2.
    Gutiérrez, J., Maletic, N., Camps-Mur, D., García, E., Berberana, I., Anastasopoulos, M., et al. (2016). 5g-xhaul: a converged optical and wireless solution for 5g transport networks. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 27(9), 1187–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dahlman, E., Parkvall, S., & Skold, J. (2018). 5G NR: The next generation wireless access technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Osseiran, A., Boccardi, F., Braun, V., Kusume, K., Marsch, P., Maternia, M., et al. (2014). Scenarios for 5g mobile and wireless communications: The vision of the metis project. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(5), 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Narmanlioglu, O., Zeydan, E., & Arslan, S. S. (2018). Service-aware multi-resource allocation in software-defined next generation cellular networks. IEEE Access, 6, 20348–20363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    NEC Corporation. (2015). Network evolution toward 2020 and beyond (white paper). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  7. 7.
    Leito, F., Ros, R. D. C., & i Riu, J. R. (2016) Fixed-mobile convergence towards the 5g era: Convergence 2.0: The past present and future of fmc standardization. In Conference on standards for communications and networking (CSCN) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Einsiedler, H.-J., Gavras, A., Sellstedt, P., Aguiar, R., Trivisonno, R., & Lavaux, D. (2015) System design for 5g converged networks. In European conference on networks and communications (EuCNC) (pp. 391–396). IEEE.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hsiung, T, & DiFede, M. (2016). 1+1 \(>\) 2 Fixed mobile convergence (white paper). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  10. 10.
    Broadband Forum. (2011). Considerations in broadband architecture moving to FMC. Broadband Forum marketing report, MR-235 Issue 1.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nokia. (2018). Two worlds collide: The inevitable, imminent convergence of mobile transport and fixed access networks (white paper). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  12. 12.
    Wyman, O. (2015) Fixed mobile convergence as a competition weapon (white paper)., 2018. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  13. 13.
    3GPP. (2013.) Fixed Broadband Access Network Interworking, (3GPP TS 23.139). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  14. 14.
    3GPP. (2012) Interworking between next generation fixed and 3GPP wireless access, (BBF TR-203. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  15. 15.
    Leitão, F., Ros, R. D. C., & i Riu, J. R. (2016) Fixed-mobile convergence towards the 5g era: Convergence 2.0: The past, present and future of fmc standardization. In 2016 IEEE Conference on standards for communications and networking (CSCN), (pp. 1–6). IEEE.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    3GPP. (2017). System architecture for the 5G system (Release 15) (TS 23.501).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Samdanis, K., Leitão, F., Oechsner, S., I Riu, J. R., Carnero R., Roberto D., & Fabregas, G. (2017) From interworking to hybrid access systems and the road toward the next-generation of fixed-mobile convergence. IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, 1(1):36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, J., & Liu, X. (2018). Evaluation of network service model based on network convergence. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2018(1), 40.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bertin, P., Mamouni, T., & Gosselin, S. (2017) Next-generation pop with functional convergence redistributions. In Fiber-Wireless Convergence in Next-Generation Communication Networks (pp. 319–336). Springer.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gosselin, S., Pizzinat, A., Grall, X., Breuer, D., Bogenfeld, E., Krauß, S., et al. (2015). Fixed and mobile convergence: Which role for optical networks? IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 7(11), 1075–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruffini, M. (2017). Multidimensional convergence in future 5g networks. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 35(3), 535–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shen, G., Rodney, S. T., & Chang-Joon, C. (2006). Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of epon and wimax. Journal of Communications and Networks, Special Issue on Big Data Networking-Challenges and Applications, 45(8), 44–50.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ghazisaidi, N., & Martin, M. (2009) Fiber-wireless (fiwi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. IEEE Network, 25(1), 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breuer, D., Weis, E., Krauss, S., & Dueser, M (2017) 5g converged transport in future access networks. In Broadband Coverage in Germany; 11. ITG-Symposium; Proceedings of (pp. 1–4). VDE.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Behrens, C., Krauß, S., Weis, E., & Breuer, D. (2018). Technologies for convergence of fixed and mobile access: An operators perspective. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 10(1), A37–A42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martínez, R., Vilalta, R., Requena, M., Casellas, R., Muñoz, R., & Mangues, J. (2018) Experimental sdn control solutions for automatic operations and management of 5g services in a fixed mobile converged packet-optical network. In 2018 International conference on optical network design and modeling (ONDM). IEEE.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gantz, J., Reinsel, D., & Rydning, J. (2018). Data Age 2025: The Evolution of Data to Life-Critical (IDC White Paper). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  28. 28.
    3GPP. (2018). Policy and charging control architecture (Release 15), 3GPP TS 23.203 V15.3.0 (2018-06). Online; Accessed 16 September 2018.
  29. 29.
    Nokia. (2018). Nokia 7360 ISAM FX Product Page. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  30. 30.
    Nokia. (2018). Nokia 7750 SR Series Data Sheet 2017 (Release 15.1). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  31. 31.
    FSAN. (2018). Full Service Access Network (FSAN) Group. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  32. 32.
    Nokia. (2018). Nokia 7705 SAR Series Data Sheet 2017 (Release 8.0). Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  33. 33.
    Infovista. (2018). TEMS product page. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  34. 34.
    Viavi. (2018). Viavi T-BERD/MTS-6000A Data Sheet 2017. Online; Accessed 05 June 2018.
  35. 35.
    3GPP. (2009). Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); S1 Application Protocol (S1AP) (Release 9), 3GPP TS 36.413 V9.1.0 (2009-12).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mobile Access System Architecture DepartmentTürk TelekomIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Türk Telekom LabsIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations