Wireless Networks

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 2091–2099 | Cite as

Spectrum pricing for cognitive radio networks with user’s stochastic distribution

  • Li Wang
  • Kwok-Yan Lam
  • Mudi Xiong
  • Feng LiEmail author
  • Xin Liu
  • Jian Wang


Amid the dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks, when complex spectrum conditions should be taken into account, how to price the spectrum in order to benefit primary systems in maximization is still under-investigated. In this paper, we devise a spectrum pricing method to address this issue in cognitive networks. In our proposed mechanism, leasing spectrum is collected for uniform selling and classified into three kinds of channels—high-quality channel, mid-quality channel and low-quality channel, respectively. They will be priced variously according to different interference characteristics caused by versatile path fading and user positions. In respond to heterogeneous channel qualities, secondary users also have own selection preferences. They can purchase one kind of channel for usage in based of channel quality and available budget. Then, we obtain the final pricing solution which is an iterative algorithm converging to a fixed point. Also, the existence of a pure Nash equilibrium is discussed to ensure the rationality of the method. In numerical results, we evaluate the effects of this proposal in spectrum pricing and primary systems’ profits.


Cognitive radio (CR) Spectrum allocation Hotelling Normal distribution 



The authors would like to thank the editor and the reviewers whose constructive comments will help improve the presentation of this paper. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 51404211.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Information EngineeringZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Information Science and TechnologyDalian Maritime UniversityDalianChina
  3. 3.School of Computer Science and EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.School of Information and Communication EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  5. 5.School of Electronic Science and EngineeringNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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