Wireless Networks

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 1847–1854 | Cite as

On selection of forwarding nodes for long opportunistic routes

  • Sajad Malekyan
  • Mozafar Bag-MohammadiEmail author
  • Marzieh Ghasemi
  • Mostafa Abdollahi


Opportunistic routing is a promising routing paradigm which increases the network throughput. It forces the sender’s neighbors, who successfully overheard the transmitted packet, to participate in the packet forwarding process as intermediate forwarding nodes. As a seminal opportunistic routing protocol, MORE combines network coding idea with opportunistic routing to eliminate the need for strict coordination among active forwarding nodes. In this paper, we show that MORE performance does not scale well with the route length, especially when the route length goes beyond two hops. Also, we found that MORE fails to establish a working opportunistic route in sparse networks. Clearly, the network throughput is directly influenced by both the quantity and quality of forwarding nodes, and their cooperation order. In this paper, we propose a new forwarder selection mechanism which considers the route length, link qualities, the distance from the source, and nodes density. It eliminates the occasional route disconnectivity happening in MORE and improves the quality of the established opportunistic routes. The simulation result indicates that our proposal always outperforms MORE when dealing with long opportunistic routes.


Opportunistic routing Network coding Wireless mesh networks 


  1. 1.
    Boukerche, A., & Darehshoorzadeh, A. (2015). Opportunistic routing in wireless networks: Models, algorithms, and classifications. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 47(2), 22.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2005). ExOR: opportunistic multi-hop routing for wireless networks. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 3(4), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chachulski, S., Jennings, M., Katti, S., Katabi, D. (2007). Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOM, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rozner, E., Seshadri, J., Mebta, Y., Qiu, L. (2006). Simple opportunistic routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. In Proceedings of IEEE WiMesh (pp. 48–54).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan, Y., et al. (2005). ROMER: Resilient opportunistic mesh routing for wireless mesh networks. In Proceedings of IEEE workshop on wireless mesh networks (WiMesh) (vol. 12).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Couto, D. S. J., Aguayo, D., Bicket, L., Morris, R. (2003) A high throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM (pp. 134–146).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laufer, R. P., Dubois-Ferrière, H., Kleinrock, L.: Multirate anypath routing in wireless mesh networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 37–45).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, Y., Mohaisen, A., & Zhang, Z. L. (2013). Trading optimality for scalability in large-scale opportunistic routing. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62(5), 2253–2263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu, W., Xie, J., and Zhang, Z. (2013). Practical opportunistic routing in high-speed multi-rate wireless mesh networks. In Proceedings of ACM International Symposium on Mobile ad hoc Networking and Computing (pp. 127–136).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meng, T., Wu, F., Yang, Z., Chen, G., & Vasilakos, A. V. (2016). Spatial reusability-aware routing in multi-hop wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 65(1), 244–255.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, Z., Du, W., Zheng, Y., Li, M., & Wu, D. (2017). From rateless to hopless. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), 25(1), 69–82.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, P., Guo, S., Yu, S., Vasilakos, A.V. (2012). CodePipe: An opportunistic feeding and routing protocol for reliable multicast with pipelined network coding. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 100–108).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanchez-Iborra, R., & Cano, M. D. (2016). JOKER: A novel opportunistic routing protocol. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 34(5), 1690–1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao, M., Kumar, A., Chong, P. H. J., & Lu, R. (2017). A reliable and energy-efficient opportunistic routing protocol for dense lossy networks. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 6(1), 26–29.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salehi, M., Boukerche, A., & Darehshoorzadeh, A. (2016). Towards a novel trust-based opportunistic routing protocol for wireless networks. Wireless Networks, 22(3), 927–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Varga, A (2017). OMNeT++– Object-oriented discrete event simulator.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science GroupIslamic Azad University of KermanshahKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Wireless Network Lab, Engineering FacultyIlam UniversityIlamIran
  3. 3.Engineering Faculty, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad University of ArakArakIran
  4. 4.Engineering FacultyKharazmi UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations