Wireless Networks

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 303–320 | Cite as

Cluster head selection for energy efficient and delay-less routing in wireless sensor network

  • Amit SarkarEmail author
  • T. Senthil Murugan


Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of tiny, cheap and power-efficient sensor nodes which effectively transmit data to the base station. The main challenge of WSN is the distance, energy and time delay. The power resource of the sensor node is a non-rechargeable battery. Here the greater the distance between the nodes, higher the energy consumption. For having the effective transmission of data with less energy, the cluster-head approach is used. It is well known that the time delay is directly proportional to the distance between the nodes and the base station. The cluster head is selected in such a way that it is spatially closer enough to the base station as well as the sensor nodes. So, the time delay can be substantially reduced. This, in turn, the transmission speed of the data packets can be increased. Firefly algorithm is developed for maximizing the energy efficiency of network and lifetime of nodes by selecting the cluster head optimally. In this paper firefly with cyclic randomization is proposed for selecting the best cluster head. The network performance is increased in this method when compared to the other conventional algorithms.


Wireless sensor network Cluster head Firefly with cyclic randomization (FCR) 



Number of sensor nodes


Cluster head


Number of clusters


Base station


Distance matrix

\(d_{{N_{c} }}\)

Distance between cluster head and node


Threshold distance


Required energy during free space model


Energy of the power amplifier

\(E_{TX} (N:d)\)

Total energy transmitted


Total energy received


Number of bits


Distance between nodes


Energy required in per bit transmits circuitry


Energy required for amplification


Total energy of network


Energy cost during idle state


Electronic energy


Energy cost while sensing


Data aggregation energy

\(\sigma_{1}\), \(\sigma_{2}\) and \(\sigma_{3}\)

Constant parameters of distance, energy and delay


Available nodes


Unavailable nodes


\(x^{th}\) cluster head


Objective function


Distance function


Energy function


Delay function


Light intensity of firefly


Absorption coefficient of firefly


Attractiveness of firefly


Distance of fireflies


Initial solution of firefly algorithm

\(x_{i + 1}\)

Updated solution of firefly algorithm


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vel Tech Dr RR & Dr SR Technical UniversityAvadi, ChennaiIndia

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