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Wireless Networks

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 303–320 | Cite as

Cluster head selection for energy efficient and delay-less routing in wireless sensor network

  • Amit SarkarEmail author
  • T. Senthil Murugan
Article

Abstract

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of tiny, cheap and power-efficient sensor nodes which effectively transmit data to the base station. The main challenge of WSN is the distance, energy and time delay. The power resource of the sensor node is a non-rechargeable battery. Here the greater the distance between the nodes, higher the energy consumption. For having the effective transmission of data with less energy, the cluster-head approach is used. It is well known that the time delay is directly proportional to the distance between the nodes and the base station. The cluster head is selected in such a way that it is spatially closer enough to the base station as well as the sensor nodes. So, the time delay can be substantially reduced. This, in turn, the transmission speed of the data packets can be increased. Firefly algorithm is developed for maximizing the energy efficiency of network and lifetime of nodes by selecting the cluster head optimally. In this paper firefly with cyclic randomization is proposed for selecting the best cluster head. The network performance is increased in this method when compared to the other conventional algorithms.

Keywords

Wireless sensor network Cluster head Firefly with cyclic randomization (FCR) 

Nomenclature

\(N_{n}\)

Number of sensor nodes

\(N_{c}\)

Cluster head

\(N^{0}\)

Number of clusters

\(B_{s}\)

Base station

\(DM(m*n)\)

Distance matrix

\(d_{{N_{c} }}\)

Distance between cluster head and node

\(d_{0}\)

Threshold distance

\(E_{fs}\)

Required energy during free space model

\(E_{mp}\)

Energy of the power amplifier

\(E_{TX} (N:d)\)

Total energy transmitted

\(E_{RX}\)

Total energy received

\(N\)

Number of bits

\(d\)

Distance between nodes

\(E_{e}\)

Energy required in per bit transmits circuitry

\(E_{am}\)

Energy required for amplification

\(E_{total}\)

Total energy of network

\(E_{1}\)

Energy cost during idle state

\(E_{el}\)

Electronic energy

\(E_{S}\)

Energy cost while sensing

\(E_{ae}\)

Data aggregation energy

\(\sigma_{1}\), \(\sigma_{2}\) and \(\sigma_{3}\)

Constant parameters of distance, energy and delay

\(X_{x}\)

Available nodes

\(X_{y}\)

Unavailable nodes

\(C_{x}\)

\(x^{th}\) cluster head

\(F_{n}\)

Objective function

\(f_{i}^{dis}\)

Distance function

\(f_{i}^{ene}\)

Energy function

\(f_{i}^{del}\)

Delay function

\(I\)

Light intensity of firefly

\(\nu\)

Absorption coefficient of firefly

\(\beta_{0}\)

Attractiveness of firefly

\(r\)

Distance of fireflies

\(x_{i}\)

Initial solution of firefly algorithm

\(x_{i + 1}\)

Updated solution of firefly algorithm

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vel Tech Dr RR & Dr SR Technical UniversityAvadi, ChennaiIndia

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