ZGLS: a novel flat quorum-based and reliable location management protocol for VANETs
- 333 Downloads
In location management services, a destination advertises its position attributes to a set of vehicles called location servers while, a source obtains these attributes from such location servers to track destination. The location management techniques in VANET have been categorized into flooding-based, flat hashing-based, hierarchical hashing-based and hierarchical quorum-based techniques. In flooding-based location service, destination information is flooded to the entire network which results into high congestion, low throughput and non-scalable network. In flat hashing, a global hash function is applied to compute location servers of each destination which results into higher delay, drop and signaling overhead in large VANETs. In hierarchical hashing, global hash function computes location servers of destination in hierarchical order. It therefore suffers from handover signaling between servers, high load on the top hierarchy and location query delay when source and destination are apart. In hierarchical quorum-based, location servers are identified cluster-wise and therefore it also suffers from the problems similar to hierarchical techniques. To overcome these problems, ZoomOut Geographic Location Service (ZGLS) protocol is proposed which introduces flat quorum-based location management service. In contrast to the aforementioned techniques, the novelty of ZGLS lies in the fact that it has shifted the location server role from hashing-based or clustering-based geographic areas to few 1-hop neighbours, called relatives. The proposed protocol creates a chain of relatives to provide positioning and tracking service. To evaluate signalling overhead, timeliness and the reliability of update and query packets, ZGLS is compared with RLSMP and HRHLS through ns-2 simulations. The results reveal that ZGLS stands out as a better choice for large-scale sparse and dense VANETs.
KeywordsPositioning and tracking Location services Position-based routing Adaptive beaconing Packet delivery VANETs
The authors are thankful to Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS for providing work space and intellectual environment, under the health and safety environment (HSE) rules, to complete this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
- 2.Garg, A., Pandey, K., & Singh, B. (2014). Hierarchical map-based location service for VANETs in urban environments. In Contemporary computing (IC3), 2014 Seventh International Conference on, 2014, (pp. 199–205).Google Scholar
- 3.Basagni, S., Chlamtac, I., Syrotiuk, V. R., & Woodward, B. A. (1998). A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM). In Presented at the proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, Dallas: Texas, USA.Google Scholar
- 5.Ayaida, M., Fouchal, H., Afilal, L., & Ghamri-Doudane, Y. (2012). A comparison of reactive, grid and hierarchical location-based services for VANETs. In Vehicular technology conference (VTC Fall), IEEE, (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
- 7.Ashok, D. M., Pai, M. M. M., & Mouzna, J. (2011). Efficient map based location service for VANETs. In 2011 11th international conference on ITS telecommunications (ITST) (pp. 387–392).Google Scholar
- 8.Flury, R., & Wattenhofer, R. (2006). MLS: an efficient location service for mobile ad hoc networks. In Presented at the Proceedings of the 7th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
- 9.Ayaida, M., Barhoumi, M., Fouchal, H., Ghamri-Doudane, Y., & Afilal, L. (2012). HHLS: A hybrid routing technique for VANETs. In IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 44–48).Google Scholar
- 10.Euisin, L., Hyunsoo, C., Thirumurthi, P., Gerla, M., & Sang-Ha, K. (2013). Quorum-based location service in vehicular sensor networks. In 9th International wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC) (pp. 1744–1749).Google Scholar
- 11.Zaki, S., Ngadi, M. A., Razak, S., Kamat, M., & Shariff, J. (2012). Location service management protocol for vehicular ad hoc network urban environment. In N. Meghanathan, N. Chaki, & D. Nagamalai (Eds.), Advances in computer science and information technology. Computer Science and Engineering (Vol. 85, pp. 563–574). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Katsaros, K., Dianati, M., & Long, L. (2013). Effective implementation of location services for VANETs in hybrid network infrastructures. In 2013 IEEE international conference on communications workshops (ICC) (pp. 521–525).Google Scholar
- 14.Das, S. M., Pucha, H., & Hu, Y. C. (2005). Performance comparison of scalable location services for geographic ad hoc routing. In INFOCOM 2005. 24th annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies. Proceedings IEEE(vol. 2, pp. 1228–1239).Google Scholar
- 15.Boumerdassi, S., & Renault, E. (2016). A flooding-based solution to improve location services in VANETs. In 2016 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
- 16.Xiang-yu, B., Xin-ming, Y., Jun, L., & Hai, J. (2009). VLS: A map-based vehicle location service for city environments. In IEEE International conference on communications, ICC ‘09 (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
- 18.Brahmi, N., Boussedjra, M., Mouzna, J., Cornelio, A. K. V., & Manohara, M. M. (2010). An improved map-based location service for vehicular ad hoc networks. In IEEE 6th international conference on wireless and mobile computing, networking and communications (WiMob) (pp. 21–26).Google Scholar
- 19.Boussedjra, M., Mouzna, J., Bangera, P., & Pai, M. M. M. (2009). Map-Based Location Service for VANET, In International conference on ultra modern telecommunications & workshops, 2009. ICUMT ‘09. (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
- 22.Hyunje, W., & Meejeong, L. (2011). Mobile group based location service management for vehicular ad-hoc networks. In 2011 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
- 23.Hyunje, W., &. Meejeong, L. (2012). Vehicle location service scheme using the vehicle trajectory for VANETs, In Advanced communication technology (ICACT), 2012 14th international conference on (pp. 1256–1261).Google Scholar
- 26.ETSI (2014). Intelligent transport system (ITS); vehicular communications; basic set of applications; Part 2: Specification of cooperative awareness basic service. ed. 650 Route des Lucioles, F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex—FRANCE: European Telecommunications Standards Institute, (p. 44).Google Scholar
- 27.Rehan, M., Hasbullah, H., Rehan, W., & Chughtai, O. (2015). ZoomOut HELLO: A novel 1-Hop broadcast scheme to improve network QoS for VANET on highways. In A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, & M. N. Mohamad Saad (Eds.), Vehicular Ad hoc networks for smart cities (Vol. 306, pp. 75–84). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.ISI. Network Simulator 2.33. Available: http://sourceforge.net/projects/nsnam/files/allinone/ns-allinone-2.33/ns-allinone-2.33.tar.gz/download. Accessed 12 Jan 2013.
- 31.DLR (2013). SUMO—Simulation of Urban Mobility. Available: http://www.dlr.de/ts/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-9883/16931_read-41000/. Accessed 15 Sep 2012.
- 32.USC-ISI. (2008). The Network Simulator—ns-2. Available: http://nsnam.isi.edu/nsnam/index.php/Main_Page. Accessed 15 May 2012.
- 33.Karp, B., & Kung, H. T. (2000). GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In presented at the Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar