Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 27, Issue 2–3, pp 443–454 | Cite as

Effects of flood inundation, invasion by Phalaris arundinacea, and nitrogen enrichment on extracellular enzyme activity in an Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest

  • Nathan R. De JagerEmail author
  • Whitney Swanson
  • Daniel L. Hernández
  • Julia Reich
  • Richard Erickson
  • Eric A. Strauss
Short Communication


The community structures and ecosystem functions of floodplains are primarily driven by variation in flood inundation. However, global changes, such as invasive species and nutrient enrichment, may alter the effects of flooding in these systems. We added nitrogen (N) to correspond with twice the annual atmospheric deposition rate of the south-west Wisconsin, USA region within mature floodplain forest plots and patches of an invasive grass (reed canarygrass, Phalaris arundinacea) along a floodplain elevation gradient in an Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest. We measured soil physicochemical properties and the activity of six extracellular enzymes during 3 months that varied in flooding conditions. Multivariate analyses (distance-based redundancy analysis) revealed that floodplain elevation, month of sampling, and vegetation type were all significant predictors of variation in soil physicochemical properties, while elevation and month were significant predictors of multivariate extracellular enzyme activity (EEA). The best model for predicting EEA consisted of nitrogen availability, soil porosity, and water filled pore space. Although the categorical fertilization and invasion treatments were not significant predictors of EEA, our results suggest that their effects depend on the degree to which they modify N availability and soil moisture. In this system, spatial and temporal patterns in flooding appear to be the main driver of these properties, but N enrichment and invasion may have the potential to further modify them.


Extracellular enzyme activity Fertilization Flood pulse Invasion Nitrogen 



Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer’s Upper Mississippi River Restoration Program and through a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center and the University of Wisconsin La Crosse River Studies Center. Rebecca M. Kreiling and two anonymous reviewers provided comments that greatly improved an earlier version of this manuscript. Any use of trade names of products does not imply endorsement by the United States Government.

Supplementary material

11273_2018_9651_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences CenterLa CrosseUSA
  2. 2.University of Wisconsin-La CrosseLa CrosseUSA
  3. 3.Carleton CollegeNorthfieldUSA

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