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Activity of Phosphatases in Soil Contaminated with PAHs

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Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) upset the basic biological parameters of the soil, such as enzymatic activity, which can be used to identify the direction and intensity of organic and mineral substance transformation in the soil environment. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of soil contamination with naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene at rates of 0–4000 mg kg−1 DM (dry matter) of soil on the activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. An analysis was also conducted on how some organic substances, such as cellulose, sucrose and compost at rates of 0 and 9 g kg−1 DM alleviate the PAH impact on the enzymes under study. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory with loamy sand as the soil material. Phosphatase resistance (RS) and soil resilience (RL) were calculated. The enzyme activity was found to depend significantly on the PAH rate, time of PAH deposition in soil and the type of organic substance added to the soil. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase increased with the degree of soil contamination with PAHs. Naphthalene had the greatest stimulating effect on enzyme activity. Biostimulation of soil with cellulose, sucrose and compost had a positive effect on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, with cellulose and compost being the most effective in boosting acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively. Naphthalene had the greatest effect on acid and alkaline phosphatase resistance and pyrene had the least effect. Low RL indices indicate that the presence of PAHs permanently disturbed the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase.

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Funding

This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education funds for statutory activity. The project was financially supported by the Minister of Science and Higher Education in the range of the program entitled “Regional Initiative of Excellence” for the years 2019–2022, Project No. 010/RID/2018/19, amount of funding 12.000.000 PLN.

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Correspondence to Jadwiga Wyszkowska.

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Lipińska, A., Kucharski, J. & Wyszkowska, J. Activity of Phosphatases in Soil Contaminated with PAHs. Water Air Soil Pollut 230, 298 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4344-1

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Keywords

  • PAHs
  • Biostimulation
  • Organic substances
  • Soil enzymes
  • Resistance
  • Resilience