Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:284 | Cite as

Low Threat by Sulphate Particles and Ozone on Tufa at Plitvice Lakes National Park

  • Elvira Kovač-Andrić
  • Brunislav MatasovićEmail author
  • Tatjana Radanović
  • Martina Šrajer Gajdošik


Plitvice Lakes National Park presents one of the most beautiful karst complexes in the world. Its waters are supersaturated with dissolved calcium carbonate (calcite) which is released and deposited in the form of tiny crystals as a result of water splashing at tufa barriers. Sulphates, present in the particulate matter (PM), can be deposited on the surface of the calcite. In the air, sulphate particles are formed by the oxidation of SO2 in a series of chemical reactions as reported by Li et al. (Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:2453–2464, 2006). Fast oxidation of SO2 in nature can also take place on the surface of the calcite in the presence of ozone and is significantly enhanced by high humidity as reported by Li et al. (Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:2453–2464, 2006) and Massey (Science of the Total Environment 227(2–3), 109–121, 1999). The resulting sulphates can destroy the surface of the calcite and indirectly influence the composition and quality of water. Hourly concentrations of ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 at the monitoring station Plitvice Lakes in the period from 2012 to 2014 are presented. After assessing the observed values of both PM and ozone, presently there are no significant danger for Plitvice Lakes. However, this can change in the future so continuous monitoring will be necessary in the future.


Tufa destruction Ozone Particulate matter Sulphate Air pollution Lake preservation 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Environment and Energy of the Republic of Croatia and Meteorological and Hydrological Service of the Republic of Croatia for publicly providing the results of the measurements from the Plitvice lake monitoring station.


  1. Alebić-Juretić, A., & Mifka, B. (2017). Secondary sulfur and nitrogen species in PM10 from the Rijeka Bay Area (Croatia). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 98(1), 133–140. Scholar
  2. Cvitaš, T., Klasinc, L., Matasović, B., & McGlynn, S. P. (2012). Modeling Eastern Adriatic photochemical pollution. International Journal of Chemical Modeling, 4, 351–356.Google Scholar
  3. de Souza, A., Kovač-Andrić, E., Matasović, B., & Marković, B. (2016). Assessment of ozone variations and meteorological influences in west Center of Brazil, from 2004 to 2010. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 227(9), 313–323. Scholar
  4. Francišković-Bilinski, S., Barišić, D., Vertačnik, A., Bilinski, H., & Prohić, E. (2004). Characterization of tufa from the Dinaric karst of Croatia: mineralogy, geochemistry and discussion of climate conditions. Facies, 50(2), 183–193. Scholar
  5. Fusaro, L., Marando, F., Sebastiani, A., Capotorti, G., Blasi, C., Copiz, R., et al. (2017). Mapping and assessment of PM10 and O3 removal by woody vegetation at urban and regional level. Remote Sensing, 9(8), 791–807. Scholar
  6. Gawhane, R. D., Rao, P. S. P., Budhavant, K. B., Waghmare, V., Meshram, D. C., & Safai, P. D. (2017). Seasonal variation of chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Pune, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(26), 21065–21072. Scholar
  7. Hadei, M., Hopke, P. K., Nazari, S. S. H., Yarahmadi, M., Shahsavani, A., & Alipour, M. R. (2017). Estimation of mortality and hospital admissions attributed to criteria air pollutants in Tehran Metropolis, Iran (2013-2016). Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17(10), 2474–2481. Scholar
  8. Harrison, R., Jones, A., & Lawrence, R. (2004). Major component composition of PM10 and PM2.5 from roadside and urban background sites. Atmospheric Environment, 38(27), 4531–4538. Scholar
  9. Herceg Romanić, S., Kljaković-Gašpić, Z., Bituh, T., Žužul, S., Dvoršćak, M., Fingler, S., et al. (2016). The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hercog, P., & Aboud, N. (2015). Godišnje izvješće o rezultatima praćenja kvalitete zraka na postajama državne mreže za praćenje kvalitete zraka u 2014. godini. Zagreb: Ekonerg.Google Scholar
  11. Horvatinčić, N., Sironić, A., Barešić, J., Bronić, I. K., Nikolov, J., Todorović, N., et al. (2014). Isotope analyses of the lake sediments in the Plitvice Lakes, Croatia. Central European Journal of Physics, 12(10), 707–713. Scholar
  12. Kovač-Andrić, E., Gvozdić, V., Herjavić, G., & Muharemović, H. (2013). Assessment of ozone variations and meteorological influences in a tourist and health resort area on the island of Mali Loinj (Croatia). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(8), 5106–5113. Scholar
  13. Kovač-Andrić, E., Gvozdić, V., & Muharemović, H. (2013). Assessment of variations of O-3 concentrations in Kopacki Rit Nature Park, Eastern Croatia. Croatica Chemica Acta, 86(1), 109–115. Scholar
  14. Li, L., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhu, T., Li, J., & Ding, J. (2006). Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on surface of calcium carbonate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 2453–2464. Scholar
  15. Lippmann, M., & Thurston, G. (1996). Sulfate concentrations as an indicator of ambient particulate matter air pollution for health risk evaluations. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 6(2), 123–146.Google Scholar
  16. Massey, S. (1999). The effects of ozone and NOx on the deterioration of calcareous stone. Science of the Total Environment, 227(2–3), 109–121. Scholar
  17. Matasović, B., Herjavić, G., Klasinc, L., & Cvitaš, T. (2014). Analysis of ozone data from the Puntijarka station for the period between 1989 and 2009. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 71(4), 269–282. Scholar
  18. Mentz, G., Robins, T. G., Batterman, S., & Naidoo, R. N. (2018). Acute respiratory symptoms associated with short term fluctuations in ambient pollutants among schoolchildren in Durban, South Africa. Environmental Pollution, 233, 529–539. Scholar
  19. Mikac, I., Fiket, Z., Terzić, S., Barešić, J., Mikac, N., & Ahel, M. (2011). Chemical indicators of anthropogenic impacts in sediments of the pristine karst lakes. Chemosphere, 84(8), 1140–1149. Scholar
  20. Prince, A. P., Kleiber, P., Grassian, V. H., & Young, M. A. (2007). Heterogeneous interactions of calcite aerosol with sulfur dioxide and sulfur dioxide-nitric acid mixtures. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 9(26), 3432–3439. Scholar
  21. Qiao, X., Du, J., Lugli, S., Ren, J., Xiao, W., Chen, P., & Tang, Y. (2016). Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China? Science of the Total Environment, 562, 724–731. Scholar
  22. Samek, L., Stegowski, Z., Furman, L., Styszko, K., Szramowiat, K., & Fiedor, J. (2017). Quantitative assessment of PM2.5 sources and their seasonal variation in Krakow. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 228(8), 290–310. Scholar
  23. Sheikholeslami, R., & Ng, M. (2001). Calcium sulfate precipitation in the presence of nondominant calcium carbonate: thermodynamics and kinetics. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40(16), 3570–3578. Scholar
  24. Tai, A. P. K., Mickley, L. J., & Jacob, D. J. (2010). Correlations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and meteorological variables in the United States: implications for the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. Atmospheric Environment, 44(32), 3976–3984. Scholar
  25. Vukosav, P., Mlakar, M., Cukrov, N., Kwokal, Z., Pižeta, I., Pavluš, N., et al. (2014). Heavy metal contents in water, sediment and fish in a karst aquatic ecosystem of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(5), 3826–3839. Scholar
  26. Zarga, Y., Ben Boubaker, H., Ghaffour, N., & Elfil, H. (2013). Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation. Chemical Engineering Science, 96, 33–41. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  2. 2.Meteorological and Hydrological ServiceZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations