Start-up of the Simultaneous Nitrification, Anammox, and Denitrification (SNAD) Reactor and Efficacy of a Small Amount of Organic Carbon
- 59 Downloads
In perspective of the issue of how to begin simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) rapidly, the sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was adopted to enrich ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox bacteria (AnAOB) rapidly and to inhibit nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) after three phases (67 days) of culture, and the impacts of different low carbon-nitrogen ratios (COD/N) on denitrification performance of the process were investigated. The results showed that preventing the accumulation of nitrite (NO2−-N) was the key to start SNAD successfully. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) in the system can reach more than 99% and 90%, respectively. Corresponding to COD/N = 0, 1 and 2, removal efficiencies of NH4+-N were 99.6%, 99.5%, and 98.5% respectively and removal efficiencies of TN were 93.8%, 97.2%, and 98.1%, respectively; the total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) was greater than 0.29 kg N m−3 day−1. It indicates that the presence of a small amount of COD is beneficial to the denitrification of NO3−-N without affecting the effect of simultaneous nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, which further improves the efficiency of nitrogen removal. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the ratios of AOB, AnAOB, and denitrifying bacteria were 7.3%, 20.1%, and 7.66%, respectively. Candidatus Kuenenia was the only genus of the SNAD reactor with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. AOB, Anammox, and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria were present in the system, while ammonia oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation played a dominant role in the denitrification process.
KeywordsSNAD Start-up Biofilm COD/N ratio Microbial communities
This work was supported by the National Natural Scie7nce Foundation of China (Grant No. 51778057).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- APHA. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Van de Vossenberg, J., Rattray, J. E., Kartal, B., van Niftrik, L., van Donselaar, E. G., Damste, J. S. S., Strous, M., & Jetten, M. S. M. (2008). Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environmental Microbiology, 10(11), 3120–3129.Google Scholar
- Fu, B., Liu, J., Gao, M., & Zhang, X. (2014). Progress in study on response of anammox bacterial species composition to environmental factors. Advances in Marine Science, 32(3), 427–434.Google Scholar
- Qian, J., Zhang, M., Niu, J., Fu, X., Pei, X., Chang, X., Wei, L., Liu, R., Chen, G.-H., & Jiang, F. (2019b). Roles of sulfite and internal recirculation on organic compound removal and the microbial community structure of a sulfur cycle-driven biological wastewater treatment process. Chemosphere, 226, 825–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strous, M. M., Kuenen, J. G. J., & Jetten, M. S. M. (1999b). Key physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(7), 3248–3250.Google Scholar
- Suenaga, T., Aoyagi, R., Sakamoto, N., Riya, S., Ohashi, H., & Hosomi, M. (2018). Immobilization of azospira sp. strain I13 by gel entrapment for mitigation of N2O from biological wastewater treatment plants: biokinetic characterization and modeling. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 126(2), 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zheng, Z., Huang, S., Bian, W., Liang, D., Wang, X., Zhang, K., Ma, X., & Li, J. (2019). Enhanced nitrogen removal of the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm reactor for treating mainstream wastewater under low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Bioresource Technology, 283, 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zou, Y., Xu, X., Wang, X., Yang, F., & Zhang, S. (2018). Achieving efficient nitrogen removal and nutrient recovery from wastewater in a combining simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process with a photobioreactor (PBR) for biomass production and generated dissolved oxygen (DO) recycling. Bioresource Technology, 268, 539–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar