Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Two Different Parts of Palm Tree: Palm Frond Base and Palm Leaflets

  • Laid Zeghoud
  • Messaoud Gouamid
  • Omar Ben MyaEmail author
  • Abdelkrim Rebiai
  • Mokhtar Saidi


In this study, the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions on palm frond base (PFB) and palm leaflets (PL) was investigated. The adsorbents were characterized by elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET) technique, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH variation, contact time, and temperature effects on adsorption capacities were studied. Maximum removal adsorption was observed at pH 6. The contact time required to obtain the equilibrium was 50 and 100 min at 25 °C, for PFB and PL, respectively. Experimental adsorption data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. The adsorption process is according to the Langmuir isotherm model for both adsorbents, with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB on PFB and PL calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model were 70.87 and 72.3 mg/g at 55 °C, respectively. The modeling of the experimental data according to the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models showed the result that the MB adsorption processes on PFB and PL followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamically, adsorption of MB on PFB and PL was endothermic, spontaneous, and achievable at 25–55 °C. These results indicated that palm frond base and palm leaflets would be suitable adsorbents for methylene blue in wastewater.


Phoenix dactylifera L. Adsorption Palm frond base Palm leaflets Methylene blue dye 



The authors thank the laboratory of Valorization of Saharan Resources and Technologies, University of El-Oued, Algeria, for its scientific support.

Funding information

This paper is financially supported by the PRFU project of Algerian Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research under the ID number A16N01UN390120180002.


  1. Abdelwahab, O., & Amin, N. K. (2013). Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions by Luffa cylindrica fibers: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 39(4), 215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Anber, Z. A., Al-Anber, M. A., Matouq, M., Al-Ayed, O., & Omari, N. M. (2011). Defatted jojoba for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution: thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Desalination, 276(1–3), 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AlOthman, Z. A., Habila, M. A., Ali, R., Ghafar, A. A., & Hassouna, M. S. E. D. (2014). Valorization of two waste streams into activated carbon and studying its adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamics for methylene blue removal. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 7(6), 1148–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alshabanat, M., Al-Mufarij, R. S., & Al-Senani, G. M. (2016). Study on adsorption of malachite green by date palm fiber. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 32(6), 3139–3144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amode, J. O., Santos, J. H., Alam, Z. M., Mirza, A. H., & Mei, C. C. (2016). Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using untreated and treated (Metroxylon spp.) waste adsorbent: equilibrium and kinetics studies. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 7(3), 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argun, M. E., Güclü, D., & Karatas, M. (2014). Adsorption of Reactive Blue 114 dye by using a new adsorbent: pomelo peel. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(3), 1079–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balarak, D., Jaafari, J., Hassani, G., Mahdavi, Y., Tyagi, I., Agarwal, S., & Gupta, V. K. (2015). The use of low-cost adsorbent (canola residues) for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution: isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Colloids and Interface Science Communications, 7, 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belala, Z., Jeguirim, M., Belhachemi, M., Addoun, F., & Trouvé, G. (2011). Biosorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by date stones and palm-trees waste: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Desalination, 271(1–3), 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bharathi, K. S., & Ramesh, S. T. (2013). Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review. Applied Water Science, 3(4), 773–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boudechiche, N., Mokaddem, H., Sadaoui, Z., & Trari, M. (2016). Biosorption of cationic dye from aqueous solutions onto lignocellulosic biomass (Luffa cylindrica): characterization, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 7(2), 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cardoso, N. F., Lima, E. C., Pinto, I. S., Amavisca, C. V., Royer, B., Pinto, R. B., et al. (2011). Application of cupuassu shell as biosorbent for the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(4), 1237–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan, S. L., Tan, Y. P., Abdullah, A. H., & Ong, S. T. (2016). Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of a new potential biosorbent for the removal of Basic Blue 3 and Congo red dyes: pineapple (Ananas comosus) plant stem. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 61, 306–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chebli, D., Bouguettoucha, A., Mekhalef, T., Nacef, S., & Amrane, A. (2015). Valorization of an agricultural waste, Stipa tenassicima fibers, by biosorption of an anionic azo dye, Congo red. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54(1), 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, X. G., Lv, S. S., Liu, S. T., Zhang, P. P., Zhang, A. B., Sun, J., & Ye, Y. (2012). Adsorption of methylene blue by rice hull ash. Separation Science and Technology, 47(1), 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Sayed, G. O. (2011). Removal of methylene blue and crystal violet from aqueous solutions by palm kernel fiber. Desalination, 272(1–3), 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etim, U. J., Umoren, S. A., & Eduok, U. M. (2016). Coconut coir dust as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 20, S67–S76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ezechi, E. H., bin Mohamed Kutty, S. R., Malakahmad, A., & Isa, M. H. (2015). Characterization and optimization of effluent dye removal using a new low cost adsorbent: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 98, 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gouamid, M., Ouahrani, M. R., & Bensaci, M. B. (2013). Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using date palm leaves. Energy Procedia, 36, 898–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gupta, N., Kushwaha, A. K., & Chattopadhyaya, M. C. (2012). Adsorption studies of cationic dyes onto Ashoka (Saraca asoca) leaf powder. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 43(4), 604–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gusmão, K. A. G., Gurgel, L. V. A., Melo, T. M. S., & Gil, L. F. (2012). Application of succinylated sugarcane bagasse as adsorbent to remove methylene blue and gentian violet from aqueous solutions–kinetic and equilibrium studies. Dyes and Pigments, 92(3), 967–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hameed, B. H. (2009). Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution using jackfruit peel as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162(1), 344–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar, P. S., Ramalingam, S., Senthamarai, C., Niranjanaa, M., Vijayalakshmi, P., & Sivanesan, S. (2010). Adsorption of dye from aqueous solution by cashew nut shell: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions. Desalination, 261(1–2), 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miraboutalebi, S. M., Nikouzad, S. K., Peydayesh, M., Allahgholi, N., Vafajoo, L., & McKay, G. (2017). Methylene blue adsorption via maize silk powder: kinetic, equilibrium, thermodynamic studies and residual error analysis. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 106, 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Munagapati, V. S., Yarramuthi, V., Kim, Y., Lee, K. M., & Kim, D. S. (2018). Removal of anionic dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Congo red) from aqueous solutions using banana peel powder as an adsorbent. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 148, 601–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nouacer, S., Hazourli, S., Djellabi, R., Khlaifia, F. Z., Hachani, R., & Ziati, M. (2016). Using a new lignocellulosic material based on palm stems for hexavalent chromium adsorption in aqueous solution. International Journal of Environmental Research, 10(1), 41–50.Google Scholar
  26. Reddy, M. S., Sivaramakrishna, L., & Reddy, A. V. (2012). The use of an agricultural waste material, Jujuba seeds for the removal of anionic dye (Congo red) from aqueous medium. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 203, 118–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Santhi, T., Manonmani, S., Vasantha, V. S., & Chang, Y. T. (2016). A new alternative adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9, S466–S474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Setiabudi, H. D., Jusoh, R., Suhaimi, S. F. R. M., & Masrur, S. F. (2016). Adsorption of methylene blue onto oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves: process optimization, isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 63, 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Subramaniam, R., & Ponnusamy, S. K. (2015). Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew nut shell) for methylene blue dye removal: optimization by response surface methodology. Water Resources and Industry, 11, 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Uddin, M. T., Rahman, M. A., Rukanuzzaman, M., & Islam, M. A. (2017). A potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. Applied Water Science, 7(6), 2831–2842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., & Ang, H. M. (2012). Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption by pine tree leaves. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223(8), 5267–5282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang, W., Yan, H., Li, H., Jiang, Z., Dong, L., Kan, X., et al. (2011). Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions by straw based adsorbents: batch and column studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 168(3), 1120–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang, Z., O’Hara, I. M., Kent, G. A., & Doherty, W. O. (2013). Comparative study on adsorption of two cationic dyes by milled sugarcane bagasse. Industrial Crops and Products, 42, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversity of OuarglaOuarglaAlgeria
  2. 2.Department of Process Engineering and Petrochemistry, Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of El-OuedEl-OuedAlgeria
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Matter SciencesUniversity of OuarglaOuarglaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations