Removal of Crystal Violet from Natural Water and Effluents Through Biosorption on Bacterial Biomass Isolated from Rhizospheric Soil
It was investigated the potential of Rhodococcus erythropolis AW3 as a biosorbent for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from natural water and real effluents. The biosorbent was characterized by flow cytometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and point of zero charge (pHZPC). Batch biosorption experiments were performed to optimize different parameters involved in the biosorption process. The equilibrium was reached at 90 min at the optimum biosorbent dose of 0.50 g L−1 and pH of 9.0. Results indicated that Langmuir isotherm model was the most suitable to represent the experimental data, and the highest biosorption capacity was 289.8 mg g−1. Kinetic data were well fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic study showed that the process was favorable, exothermic, and associated with an increase of entropy. Finally, it was demonstrated that the biosorption process using Rhodococcus erythropolis AW3 could be successfully applied to remove CV from natural water and effluents derived from clinical and industrial activities.
KeywordsCrystal violet Rhodococcus erythropolis AW3 Biosorption Removal Natural water Industrial effluents
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (FONCYT) (PICT–BID), and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina).
- Baltazar, M. dos P. G., Gracioso, L. H., Avanzi, I. R., Karolski, B., Tenório, J. A. S., do Nascimento, C. A. O., & Perpetuo, E. A. (2019). Copper biosorption by Rhodococcus erythropolis isolated from the Sossego Mine – PA – Brazil. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8(1), 475–483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.04.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brown, S., Santa Maria, J. P., & Walker, S. (2013). Wall teichoic acids of gram-positive bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology, 67(1), 313–336. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-092412-155620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chowdhury, S., Chakraborty, S., & Saha, P. D. (2013). Adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by citric acid modified rice straw: Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Separation Science and Technology, 48(9), 1339–1348. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2012.729122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crini, G., & Badot, P.-M. (2008). Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: A review of recent literature. Progress in Polymer Science, 33(4), 399–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Escudero, L. B., Quintas, P. Y., Wuilloud, R. G., & Dotto, G. L. (2019). Recent advances on elemental biosorption. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 17(1), 409–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1031101808166.
- Filho, A. C. D., Mazzocato, A. C., Dotto, G. L., Thue, P. S., & Pavan, F. A. (2017). Eragrostis plana Nees as a novel eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(24), 19909–19919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9365-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jayasantha Kumari, H., Krishnamoorthy, P., Arumugam, T. K., Radhakrishnan, S., & Vasudevan, D. (2017). An efficient removal of crystal violet dye from waste water by adsorption onto TLAC/chitosan composite: A novel low cost adsorbent. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 96, 324–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.11.077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan, M. M. R., Rahman, M. W., Ong, H. R., Ismail, A. B., & Cheng, C. K. (2016). Tea dust as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(31), 14728–14738. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1066272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lim, L. B. L., Priyantha, N., Zehra, T., Then, C. W., & Chan, C. M. (2016). Adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto chemically treated Artocarpus odoratissimus skin: Equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics studies. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(22), 10246–10260. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1033474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, C., Liang, M., Chen, Y., Sayavedra-soto, L. A., & Liu, H. (2012). Biodegradation of n-alkanes at high concentration and correlation to the accumulation of H+ ions in Rhodococcus erythropolis NTU-1. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 63(1), 124–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2011.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, S., Zeng, G., Niu, Q., Liu, Y., Zhou, L., Jiang, L., et al. (2017). Bioresource technology bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review. Bioresource Technology, 224, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malhautier, L., Quijano, G., Avezac, M., Rocher, J., & Fanlo, J. L. (2014). Kinetic characterization of toluene biodegradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis: Towards a rationale for microflora enhancement in bioreactors devoted to air treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 247, 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.02.099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miyah, Y., Lahrichi, A., Idrissi, M., Boujraf, S., Taouda, H., & Zerrouq, F. (2017). Assessment of adsorption kinetics for removal potential of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions using Moroccan pyrophyllite. Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Applied Sciences, 23(1), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaubas.2016.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neupane, S., Ramesh, S. T., Gandhimathi, R., & Nidheesh, P. V. (2015). Pineapple leaf (Ananas comosus) powder as a biosorbent for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54(7), 2041–2054. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.903867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramírez-García, R., Gohil, N., & Singh, V. (2019). Recent Advances, Challenges, and Opportunities in Bioremediation of Hazardous Materials. In V. C. Pandey & K. Bauddh (Eds.), Phytomanagement of Polluted Sites (1st Edition., pp. 517–568). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813912-7.00021-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rivera-Utrilla, J., Bautista-Toledo, I., Ferro-García, M. A., & Moreno-Castilla, C. (2001). Activated carbon surface modifications by adsorption of bacteria and their effect on aqueous lead adsorption. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 76(12), 1209–1215. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wevar Oller, A. L., Talano, M. A., & Agostini, E. (2013). Screening of plant growth-promoting traits in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of soybean plants from Argentinean agricultural soil. Plant and Soil, 369(1–2), 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1543-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar