Advertisement

Toxicity Study of a Textile Effluent Treated with Electrohydraulic Discharge and Coagulant/Flocculants

  • Vedastus W. MakeneEmail author
  • Jimoh O. Tijani
  • Emile Massima
  • Leslie F. Petrik
  • Edmund J. Pool
Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Exposure to complex organic substances present in textile wastewater has been considered a threat to human health and aquatic organisms. Development of appropriate treatment mechanisms, as well as sensitive monitoring assays, is considered important in order to safeguard and protect the delicate natural equilibrium in the environment. In this study, combined coagulation/flocculation and electrohydraulic discharge (EHD) system were explored for treatment of textile wastewater. Pre- and post-treatment samples were used to evaluate process efficiencies. Process efficiencies were evaluated using physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity and inflammatory activities induced in macrophage RAW264.7 cell line. The RAW264.7 cell line was evaluated as an alternative to animals and human blood culture models, whose routine applications are hindered by stern ethical requirements. The toxicity of effluent was evaluated using WST-1 assay. The inflammatory activities were evaluated in RAW264.7 cell culture supernatant using nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) as biomarkers of inflammation. The levels of NO and IL-6 were determined using the Griess reaction assay and double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA), respectively. Overall, the results of this study show that combined approaches and not the single EHD system are sufficient for complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity and inflammatory activities in textile wastewater. The study shows that induction of NO and IL-6 secretions in macrophage RAW264.7 cells is a very sensitive model system to monitor the efficiency of textile effluent treatment processes.

Keywords

Coagulation/flocculation Textile effluent Toxicity Inflammation Electrohydraulic discharge Nitric oxide Interleukin 6 

Notes

References

  1. Adebayo, S. A., Shai, L. J., Cholo, M. C., Anderson, R., & du Toit, D. (2014). Assessment of the pro-inflammatory activity of water sampled from major water treatment facilities in the greater Pretoria region. Water SA, 40(2), 379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hemiri, A., Al-Anbari, H., & Shakir, I. K. (2007). Dye removal from wastewater using iron salts. Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petrolium Engineering, 9(3), 17–24.Google Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th Edition, APHA, Washington DC, p 1268.Google Scholar
  4. Anvari, F., Kheirkhah, M., & Amraei, A. (2014). Treatment of synthetic textile wastewater by combination of coagulation/flocculation process and electron beam irradiation. Journal of Community Health Research., 3(1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  5. Bacardit, J., Stötzner, J., Chamarro, E., & Esplugas, S. (2007). Effect of salinity on the photo-Fenton process. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 7615–7619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruggeman, P. J., & Locke, B. R. (2013). Assessment of potential applications of plasma with liquid water. In P. Chu & X. Lu (Eds.), Low temperature plasma technology: methods and applications (pp. 368–369). New York: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chequer, F. M. D., de Oliveira, G. A. R., Ferraz, E. R. A., Cardoso, J. C., Zanoni, M. V. B., & de Oliveira, D. P. (2013). Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact. In Eco-friendly textile dyeing and finishing. InTech.Google Scholar
  8. Enjarlis (2013). Application of coagulation-advanced oxidation process by O3/GAC in the fan belt wastewater treatment. Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society (APCBEE).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faul, A. K., Julies, E., & Pool, E. J. (2014). Steroid hormone concentrations and physiological toxicity of water from selected dams in Namibia. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 39(2), 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hnizdo, E., & Vallyathan, V. (2003). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(4), 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoesel, B., & Schmid, J. A. (2013). The complexity of NF-κB signaling in inflammation and cancer. Molecular Cancer, 12, 86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang, B., Zheng, J., Qiu, S., Wu, M., Zhang, Q., Yan, Z., & Xue, Q. (2014). Review on electrical discharge plasma technology for wastewater remediation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 236, 348–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jung, Y. J., Kim, W. G., Yoon, Y., Hwang, T. M., & Kang, J. W. (2012). pH effect on ozonation of ampicillin: kinetic study and toxicity assessment. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 34(3), 156–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang, Y. H., & Biswas, S. K. (2013). Basophil-macrophage dialog in allergic inflammation. Immunity, 38(3), 408–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M., & Guwy, A. J. (2009). The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal cares products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters. Water Research, 43(2), 363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim, H. G., Yeon, S. M., Kim, K. H., Kim, H., Park, J. I., Kang, H. J., Cha, E. J., Park, H. D., Kang, H. J., Park, T. W., Jeon, Y. H., Park, Y., Chang, K. T., & Jung, Y. W. (2014). Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals modulate the production of inflammatory mediators and cell viability of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Inflammation.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-014-9966-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirkham, P. (2007). Oxidative stress and macrophage function: a failure to resolve the inflammatory response. Biochemical Society Transactions, 35(Pt 2), 284–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kiwi, J., Lopez, A., & Nadtochenko, V. (2000). Mechanism and kinetics of the OH-radical intervention during Fenton oxidation in the presence of a significant amount of radical scavenger (Cl). Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 2162–2168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klemola, K., Pearson, J., & Lindstrom-Seppä, P. (2007). Evaluating the toxicity of reactive dyes and dyed fabrics with the HacaT cytotoxicity test. Autex Research Journal, 7, 217–223.Google Scholar
  20. Lacasse, K., & Baumann, W. (2004). Textile chemicals: environmental data and facts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3642-18898-5.
  21. Leme, D. M., de Oliveira, G. A. R., Meireles, G., dos Santos, T. C., Zanoni, M. V. B., & de Oliveira, D. P. (2014). Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat. Toxicology In Vitro, 28(1), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li, O. L., Takeuchi, N., He, Z., Guo, Y., Yasuoka, K., Chang, J. S., & Saito, N. (2012). Active species generated by a pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharge plasma channel in contaminated water treatments. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 32(2), 343–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maletz, S., Floehr, T., Beier, S., Klumper, C., Brouwer, A., Behnisch, P., Higley, E., Giesy, J. P., Hecker, M., Gebhardt, L. V., Pinnekamp, J., & Hollert, H. (2013). In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents. Water Research, 47, 1545–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Malik, M. A. (2010). Water purification by plasmas: which reactors are most energy efficient? Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 30, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malinauskiene, L., Zimerson, E., Bruze, M., Ryberg, K., & Isaksson, M. (2012). Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles? Contact Dermatitis, 67(3), 141–148. Online.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000357021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meriç, S., Selçuk, H., & Belgiorno, V. (2005). Acute toxicity removal in textile finishing wastewater by Fenton’s oxidation, ozone and coagulation–flocculation processes. Water Research, 39(6), 1147–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muruganandham, M., Suri, R. P. S., Jafari, S., Sillanpää, M., Gang-Juan, L., Wu, J. J. & Swaminathan, M. (2014). Recent developments in homogeneous advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2014, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/821674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nagel-Hassemer, M. E., Carvalho-Pinto, C. R. S., Matias, W. G., & Lapolli, F. R. (2011). Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation. Environmental Technology, 32(16), 1867–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nygaard, U., Kralund, H. H., & Sommerlund, M. (2013). Allergic contact dermatitis induced by textile necklace. Case Reports in Dermatology, 5(3), 336–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Olivier, L., Laurent, F., Michael, T., Diego, M., & Stéphanie, O. (2013). Treatment of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by plasma-based advanced oxidation processes. Chemical Engineering and Processing Process Intensification.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2013.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oller, I., Malato, S., & Sánchez-Pérez, J. A. (2011). Combination of advanced oxidation processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination - a review. Science of the Total Environment, 409(20), 4141–4166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Osuolale, O., & Okoh, A. (2015). Assessment of the physicochemical qualities and prevalence of Escherichia coli and Vibrios in the final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants in South Africa: ecological and public health implications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(10), 13399–13412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pool, E. J., & Magcwebeba, T. U. (2009). The screening of river water for immunotoxicity using an in vitro whole blood culture assay. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 200(1–4), 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Puvaneswari, N., Muthukrishnan, J., & Gunasekaran, P. (2006). Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 44(8), 618.Google Scholar
  35. Rizzo, L. (2011). Bioassays as a tool for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater treatment. Water Research, 45(15), 4311–4340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sacan, M. T., & Balcioglu, I. A. (2006). A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 64, 234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Savin, I.-I., & Butnaru, R. (2008). Wastewater characteristics in textile finishing mills. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 7, 859–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sharma S, Ruparelia, J.P. and Manish, L P (2011). A general review on advanced oxidation processes for waste water treatment. Paper presented at the Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, 382-481, 08–10 2011.Google Scholar
  39. Soni, P., Sharma, S., Sharma, S., Kumar, S., & Sharma, K. P. (2006). A comparative study on the toxic effects of textile dye wastewaters (untreated and treated) on mortality and RBC of a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis(Baird and Gerard). Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(4), 623–628.Google Scholar
  40. Sonune, N. A., Mungal, N. A., & Kamble, S. P. (2015). Study of physico-chemical characteristics of domestic wastewater in Vishnupuri, Nanded, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 533–536.Google Scholar
  41. Tahara, M., & Okubo, M. (2014). Detection of free radicals produced by a pulsed electrohydraulic discharge using electron spin resonance. Journal of Electrostatics, 72(3), 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Verma, Y. (2008). Acute toxicity assessment of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents using Daphnia magna bioassay. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 24(7), 491–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wichmann, G., Daegelmann, C., Herbarth, O., Strauch, G., Schirmer, K., Wöstemeyer, J., & Lehmann, I. (2004). Inflammatory activity in river-water samples. Environmental Toxicology, 19(6), 594–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu, J. J., Yang, J. S., Muruganandham, M., & Wu, C. C. (2008). The oxidation study of 2-propanol using ozone-based advanced oxidation processes. Separation and Purification Technology, 62(1), 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xu, X., Wu, X., Wang, Q., Cai, N., Zhang, H., Jiang, Z., Wan, M., & Oda, T. (2014). Immunomodulatory effects of alginate oligosaccharides on murine macrophage RAW264. 7 cells and their structure–activity relationships. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(14), 3168–3176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang, D. M., Wan, B., Ren, H. Y., & Yuan, J. M. (2012). Effects and mechanism of ozonation for degradation of sodium acetate in aqueous solution. Water Science and Engineering, 5, 155–163.Google Scholar
  47. Zayas, P. T., Geissler, G., & Hernandez, F. (2007). Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 300–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vedastus W. Makene
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jimoh O. Tijani
    • 2
  • Emile Massima
    • 2
  • Leslie F. Petrik
    • 2
  • Edmund J. Pool
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical BioscienceUniversity of the Western CapeBellvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Department of ChemistryUniversity of the Western CapeBellvilleSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations