The Use of OJIP Fluorescence Transients to Monitor the Effect of Elevated Ozone on Biomass of Canola Plants
- 92 Downloads
The effects of elevated ozone (O3) levels (80 ppb and 120 ppb) on photosynthetic efficiency and growth of canola plants were studied in open-top chambers. The chlorophyll a polyphasic fluorescence rise kinetics OJIP, stomatal conductance and Chlorophyll Content Index (CCI) were measured after 15 and 30 days of O3 fumigation, as well as in control plants; biomass measurements were done only after 30 days with and without fumigation. Analysis of the OJIP kinetics by the JIP-test led to the calculation of several photosynthetic parameters and the total Performance Index (PItotal). The decline of PItotal under the 80 ppb O3 treatment was due to a lower density of reaction centres (RC/ABS), while the notable decline under the 120 ppb treatment was found to be due both to a further decline of RC/ABS and to a pronounced lowering of the efficiency with which an electron can move from the reduced intersystem electron acceptors to the PSI end acceptors (δRo). Stomatal conductance was affected by both treatments. Biomass was found to be affected by O3 fumigation (for 30 days), decreasing by 40% at 80 ppb and by more than 70% under 120 ppb. Our findings indicate that biomass decline is due both to the lowering of CCI and the lowering of photosynthetic efficiency parameters. They thus suggest that two simple, non-invasive and rapid methods, namely, the analysis of OJIP fluorescence transients and the measurement of CCI, can be used to screen the effect of elevated O3 on biomass of canola plants.
KeywordsBiomass Canola Chlorophyll a fluorescence JIP-test Open-top chamber Ozone
Absorption (proportional to chlorophyll)
Chlorophyll Content Index
Total Performance Index
Acknowledgements are due to Dr. Merope Tsimilli-Michael (Cyprus) for her helpful of explanations concerning the concepts, application and interpretation of the JIP test and Prof. Suria Ellis (North-West University) for her kind assistance with regard to statistical analysis.
This study was supported by the Cuomo foundation through the partnership with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scholarship programme and by the Applied Centre for Climate and Earth Systems Science (ACCESS).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The contents of this paper are solely the liability of the authors and under no circumstances may be considered as a reflection of the Cuomo Foundation, IPCC and/or ACCESS.
- Booker, F., Muntifering, R., Mcgrath, M., Burkey, K., Decoteau, D., Fiscus, E., Manning, W., Krupa, S., Chappelka, A., & Grantz, D. (2009). The ozone component of global change: potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 51(4), 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bussotti, F., Desotgiu, R., Cascio, C., Pollastrini, M., Gravano, E., Gerosa, G., Marzuoli, R., Nali, C., Lorenzini, G., Salvatori, E., & Manes, F. (2011). Ozone stress in woody plants assessed with chlorophyll a fluorescence. A critical reassessment of existing data. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 73, 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cho, K., Tiwari, S., Agrawal, S. B., Torres, N. L., Agrawal, M., Sarkar, A., Shibato, J., Agrawal, G. K., Kubo, A., & Rakwal, R. (2011). Tropospheric ozone and plants: absorption, responses, and consequences. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume, 212, 61–111.Google Scholar
- Digrado, A., Bachy, A., Mozaffar, A., Schoon, N., Bussotti, F., Amelynck, C., Dalcq, A. C., Fauconnier, M. L., Aubinet, M., Heinesch, B., & du Jardin, P. (2017). Long-term measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence using the JIP-test show that combined abiotic stresses influence the photosynthetic performance of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in a managed temperate grassland. Physiologia Plantarum, 161(3), 355–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Feng, Z., Kobayashi, K., & Ainsworth, E. A. (2008). Impact of elevated ozone concentration on growth, physiology, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology, 14(11), 2696–2708.Google Scholar
- Kalaji, H.M., Jajoo, A., Oukarroum, A., Brestic, M., Zivcak, M., Samborska, I.A., Cetner, M.D., Łukasik, I., Goltsev, V., Ladle, R.J., & Dąbrowski, P. (2014). The use of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics analysis to study the performance of photosynthetic machinery in plants. In: P. Ahmad (Ed.), Emerging technologies and management of crop stress tolerance (pp. 347–384). Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Kalaji, H. M., Jajoo, A., Oukarroum, A., Brestic, M., Zivcak, M., Samborska, I. A., Cetner, M. D., Łukasik, I., Goltsev, V., & Ladle, R. J. (2016). Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a tool to monitor physiological status of plants under abiotic stress conditions. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 38(4), 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalaji, H. M., Rastogi, A., Živčák, M., Brestic, M., Daszkowska-Golec, A., Sitko, K., Alsharafa, K. Y., Lotfi, R., Stypiński, P., Samborska, I. A., & Cetner, M. D. (2018). Prompt chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for crop phenotyping: an example of barley landraces exposed to various abiotic stress factors. Photosynthetica, 56(3), 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laakso, L., Beukes, J. P., Van Zyl, P. G., Pienaar, J. J., Josipovic, M., Venter, A., Jaars, K., Vakkari, V., Labuschagne, C., Chiloane, K., & Tuovinen, J. P. (2013). Ozone concentrations and their potential impacts on vegetation in Southern Africa. Developments in Environmental Science, 13, 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mills, G., & Harmens, H. 2011. Ozone pollution: a hidden threat to food security. Programme Coordination Centre for the ICP Vegetation, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor.Google Scholar
- Morgan, P. B., Mies, T. A., Bollero, G. A., Nelson, R. L., & Long, S. P. (2006). Season-long elevation of ozone concentration to projected 2050 levels under fully open-air conditions substantially decreases the growth and production of soybean. New Phytologist, 170(2), 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Porter, J. R., Xie, L., Challinor, A. J., Cochrane, K., Howden, S. M., Iqbal, M. M., Lobell, D. B., & Travasso, M. I. (2014). Food security and food production systems. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, & L. L. White (Eds.), Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 485–533). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Pšidová, E., Živčák, M., Stojnić, S., Orlović, S., Gömöry, D., Kučerová, J., Ditmarová, Ľ., Střelcová, K., Brestič, M., & Kalaji, H. M. (2018). Altitude of origin influences the responses of PSII photochemistry to heat waves in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 152, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rastogi, A., ZIVCAK, M., Tripathi, D.K., Yadav, S., Kalaji, H.M., & Brestic, M. (2019). Phytotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles in Triticum aestivum: improper regulation of photosystem I activity as the reason for oxidative damage in the chloroplast. Photosynthetica, 57. In press.Google Scholar
- Salvatori, E., Fusaro, L., Mereu, S., Bernardini, A., Puppi, G., & Manes, F. (2013). Different O3 response of sensitive and resistant snap bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): the key role of growth stage, stomatal conductance, and PSI activity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 87, 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scholes, R. J., & Scholes, M. C. (1998). Natural and human-related sources of ozone-forming trace gases in southern Africa. South African Journal of Science, 94, 422–425.Google Scholar
- Strasser, R. J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Dangre, D., & Rai, M. (2007). Biophysical phenomics reveals functional building blocks of plants systems biology: a case study for the evaluation of the impact of mycorrhization with Piriformospora indica. In A. Varma & R. Oelmüller (Eds.), Advanced techniques in soil microbiology (pp. 319–342). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strasser, R. J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Qiang, S., & Goltsev, V. (2010). Simultaneous in vivo recording of prompt and delayed fluorescence and 820-nm reflection changes during drying and after rehydration of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1797(6–7), 1313–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The Royal Society. (2008). Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications. Science Policy Report 15/08. London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
- Tsimilli-Michael, M., & Strasser, R. J. (2001). Fingerprints for climate changes on the behaviour of the photosynthetic apparatus, monitored by the JIP-test. A case study on light and heat stress adaptation of the symbionts of temperate and coral reef foraminifers in hospite. In G.-R. Walther, C. A. Burga, & P. J. Edwards (Eds.), “Fingerprints” of climate changes–adapted behaviour and shifting species ranges (pp. 229–247). New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsimilli-Michael, M., & Strasser, R. J. (2008). In vivo assessment of stress impact on plant’s vitality: applications in detecting and evaluating the beneficial role of mycorrhization on host plants. In mycorrhiza. In A. Varma (Ed.), Mycorrhiza: state of the art, genetics and molecular biology, eco-function, biotechnology, eco-physiology, structure and systematics (pp. 679–670). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Tienhoven, A. M., Otter, L., Lenkopane, M., Venjonoka, K., & Zunckel, M. (2005). Assessment of ozone impacts on vegetation in southern Africa and directions for future research: commentary. South African Journal of Science, 101(3–4), 143–148.Google Scholar
- Yusuf, M. A., Kumar, D., Rajwanshi, R., Strasser, R. J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., & Sarin, N. B. (2010). Overexpression of γ-tocopherol methyl transferase gene in transgenic Brassica juncea plants alleviates abiotic stress: physiological and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1797(8), 1428–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zivcak, M., Brestic, M., Kunderlikova, K., Olsovska, K., & Allakhverdiev, S. I. (2015). Effect of photosystem I inactivation on chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in wheat leaves: does activity of photosystem I play any role in OJIP rise? Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 152, 318–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zunckel, M., Venjonoka, K., Pienaar, J. J., Brunke, E. G., Pretorius, O., Koosialee, A., Raghunandan, A., & Van Tienhoven, A. M. (2004). Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project. Atmospheric Environment, 38(36), 6139–6147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar