Impact of Dairy Manure Processing Using Polyacrylamide on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Level

  • Sunghwa Han
  • Sharon C. Long
  • Troy Runge
  • Cuihua Dong
  • Zong LiuEmail author


This study investigates levels of bacteria through population indicators as well as the levels of antibiotic-resistance bacteria in dairy manure. Although overall bacteria levels may be reduced during manure processing, it is of interest whether changes in management practices could lead to increased levels of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, which are becoming more prevalent in agricultural soils, groundwater, and surface water. Appropriate manure treatments are needed not only to reduce the potential risk of exporting antibiotic-resistant bacteria to an environment, but also reduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria exposure to animals if processed water is recycled. Results from this research revealed manure separation under relatively low speed centrifuge with 100 ppm polyacrylamide (PAM) emulsion addition reduced bacteria indicators population such as total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) significantly in the liquid stream compared to no PAM added. However, the percentages of antibiotic-resistant isolates in liquid stream after centrifuge with PAM were higher compared to raw manure and no PAM added. Antibiotic resistance (cephalosporin, florfenicol, penicillin, or tetracycline) was observed or 65.38% of bacterial isolates in manure from a large dairy farm in Wisconsin and 39.29% of isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. The results from this study strongly suggest that appropriate manure treatment is essential in order to help minimize the abundance of antibiotic resistance in our water environment.


Antibiotic resistance Polyacrylamide Manure treatment Pathogen indicator reduction 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA BRDI Grant Number 2012-10006-19423). This was also supported by Texas A&M Agrilife and administered by the Department of Bio and Agricultural engineering at Texas A&M University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological and Agricultural EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and Soil ScienceUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Water Quality Investigations, LLCMount HorebUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biological Systems EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  5. 5.College of Printing and Packaging EngineeringQilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of SciencesJinanChina

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