Effects of Surfactant and Electrolyte Concentrations, Cation Valence, and Temperature on Graphene Oxide Retention and Transport in Saturated Porous Media
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Environmental fate and impacts of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles are strongly influenced by their subsurface behaviors. The present work examined the aggregation and transport behaviors of GO in saturated sand columns under different temperature (6 and 24 °C), surfactant concentration (0.04% and 0.4%), cation valence, and electrolyte concentration conditions. In monovalent electrolyte (NaCl), although the presence of cationic surfactant (CTAB) notably increased GO stability and mobility, GO ripening happened due to their concurrent aggregation and transport in the columns. GO particles were more mobile at a lower temperature probably because the CTAB coating of GO increased with decreasing temperature, leading to stronger electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, GO retention in the media increased with the increase of NaCl concentration due to the enhanced compression of the electric double layer. In multivalent electrolyte (CaCl2 or AlCl3), the presence of CTAB greatly improved GO stability and mobility and no deposition occurred in saturated porous media under all the tested conditions. This is because the CTAB coating of GO diminished the cation bridging effects in both GO-GO and GO-sand systems. Results from extended Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (XDLVO) theory considering steric repulsion suggest that secondary minimum aggregation and depositions were the main mechanisms of GO retention transport in monovalent electrolyte in saturated porous media.
KeywordsGraphene oxide Aggregation Deposition Temperature Surfactant Cation valence
This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51509069), the Special Fund of State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering (No. 2017490811), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, and China Scholarship Council (CSC).
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