Removal of Diclofenac from Aqueous Phase by Birnessite: Effects of pH and Common Ions

  • Yue Zhao
  • Fei LiuEmail author
  • Xiaopeng Qin


In this study, the removal of diclofenac (DCF) from aqueous phase by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, was investigated by batch experiments. The results indicated that 90% of DCF was removed by birnessite within 4 h in different initial concentrations of DCF, and the kinetic experiment data were well fitted with pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.98). The removal of DCF by birnessite was pH-dependent, and low pH was beneficial to the reaction. The presence of Fe2+ and Mn2+ strongly inhibited the removal of DCF. However, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and humic acid (HA) promoted the reaction and following the order: Cu2+ > Zn2+ > HA > Mg2+ ≈ Ca2+. In addition, some typical anions, such as NO3, PO43−, and SO42−, had slight effects on the reaction. Electrochemical results demonstrated that the adsorption of DCF on birnessite was reaction rate-limiting step.

Graphical Abstract


Birnessite Diclofenac Removal Adsorption Ionic composition 



We thank Jiayu Yang, Xiaoli Wu, and Cui Ren for their help in some experiments.

Funding Information

This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFF0205804) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41731282).

Supplementary material

11270_2018_4059_MOESM1_ESM.doc (809 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 809 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and SafetyChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, and MOE Key Laboratory of Groundwater Circulation and Environmental EvolutionChina University of Geosciences (Beijing)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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