Polyacrylamide and Rill Flow Rate Effects on Erosion and Ammonium Nitrogen Losses
- 104 Downloads
Overland flow caused by rainfall is one of the critical factors influencing soil erosion and loss of soil nutrients. Therefore, the study on the mechanism and controlling measures of soil nutrient transport proposed is considered important. A simulation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of polyacrylamide application rates (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/m2) and flow rates (400 ml/min, 600 ml/min, and 800 ml/min) on runoff, infiltration rate, soil losses, and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) in runoff at loess slope (0.8 m (width) × 1.5 m (length) and 5°). As the results suggest runoff, sediment loss, and soil nutrient loss increased by increasing flow rate. Applicable amount of polyacrylamide (PAM) can effectively increase infiltration and reduce soil erosion, but excess amount of dissolved PAM would plug porosity of soil which could decrease the infiltration. The ammonia nitrogen loss amount was decreased with the increase of the PAM application rate. The ammonia nitrogen loss amount respectively decreased by 40.0%, 57.0%, 59.1%, and 63.4% with the PAM application rate of 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/m2. The best performance with the coefficient of determination (R2) showed that the ammonium transport with runoff can be well described by the proposed model in flow scour experiments of this study. Furthermore, the model parameter b has a significant positive exponential relation with the total amount of sediment.
KeywordsPolyacrylamide Rill flow rate Erosion Nitrogen loss Model
C. Ao and S.Q. Li designed the experiments; H.L. Xu performed the experiments; H.L. Xu and C. Ao analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Also, C. Ao reviewed the article before and after submission.
This study received a financial support from the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos. 51790533, 51239009, and 51879196) and the National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (201710019215).
- Aase, J. K., Bjorneberg, D. L., & Sojka, R. E. (1998). Sprinkler irrigation runoff and erosion con-trol with polyacrylamide - laboratory tests. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62(6), 1681–1687. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200060028x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ahuja, L. R., & Lehman, O. R. (1983). The extent and nature of rainfall-soil interaction in the re-lease of soluble chemicals to runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality, 12(1), 34–40. https://doi.org/10.2136/jeq1983.00472425001200010005x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ahuja, L. R., Sharpley, A. N., Yamamoto, M., Menzel, R. G. (1981). The depth of rainfall-runoff-soil interaction as determined by P . Water Resources Research, 17(4), 969–974.Google Scholar
- Ao, C., Yang, P., Ren, S., Xing, W., Li, X., & Feng, X. (2016). Efficacy of granular polyacrylamide on runoff, erosion and nitrogen loss at loess slope under rainfall simulation. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(6). https://doi.org/10.2136/10.1007/s12665-015-5110-3.
- Ao, C., Yang, P., Ren, S., & Xing, W. (2018). Mathematical model of ammonium nitrogen transport with overland flow on a slope after polyacrylamide application. Scientific Reports, 8. https://doi.org/10.2136/10.1038/s41598-018-24819-9.
- Bu, Y., Miao, G., Zhou, N., Shao, H., & Wang, J. (2006). Analysis and comparison of the effects of plastic film mulching and straw mulching on soil fertility. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 39(5), 1069–1075.Google Scholar
- Chen, Z., Chen, W., Li, C., Pu, Y., Sun, H. (2016). Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects. Science of The Total Environment, 554–555, 26–33.Google Scholar
- Delwiche, L. L. D., & Haith, D. A. (1983). Loading functions for predicting nutrient losses from complex watersheds. Water Resources Bulletin, 19(6), 951–959. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1983.tb05945.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eroglu, S., Sahin, U., Tunc, T., Sahin, F. (2012). Bacterial application increased the flow rate of CaCO3-clogged emitters of drip irrigation system. Journal of Environmental Management, 98, 37–42.Google Scholar
- Gao, B., Walter, M. T., Steenhuis, T. S., Hogarth, W. L., Parlange, J.-Y. (2004). Rainfall induced chemical transport from soil to runoff: theory and experiments. Journal of Hydrology, 295(1–4), 291–304.Google Scholar
- Gao, B., Walter, M. T., Steenhuis, T. S., Parlange, J.-Y., Richards, B. K., Hogarth, W. L., Rose, C. W. (2005). Investigating raindrop effects on transport of sediment and non-sorbed chemicals from soil to surface runoff. Journal of Hydrology, 308(1–4), 313–320.Google Scholar
- Krauth, D. M., Bouldin, J. L., Green, V. S., Wren, P. S., & Baker, W. H. (2008). Evaluation of a polyacrylamide soil additive to reduce agricultural-associated contamination. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 81(2), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9448-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laubel, A. R., Kronvang, B., Larsen, S. E., Pedersen, M. L., & Svendsen, L. M. (2000). Bank erosion as a source of sediment and phosphorus delivery to small Danish streams. In M. S-tone (Ed.), Role of erosion and sediment transport in nutrient and contaminant transfer, Proceedings (Vol. 263, pp. 75-82, IAHS Publication).Google Scholar
- Lentz, R. D. (2015). Polyacrylamide and biopolymer effects on flocculation, aggregate stability, and water seepage in a silt loam. Geoderma, 241, 289–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.g-eoderma.2014.11.019.
- Li, Y., Shao, M., & Horton, R. (2011). Effect of polyacrylamide applications on soil hydraulic characteristics and sediment yield of sloping land. In Q. Zhou (Ed.), 2011 2nd International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Computer Engineering (Vol. 11, pp. 763–773, Procedia Environmental Sciences). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2011.12.118.
- Nearing, M. A., Simanton, J. R., Norton, L. D., Bulygin, S. J., & Stone, J. (1999). Soil erosion b-y surface water flow on a stony, semiarid hillslope. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24(8), 677–686. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9837(199908)24:8<677::aid-esp981>3.3.co;2-t.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ohno, T., & Zibilske, L. M. (1991). Determination of low concentrations of phosphorus in soil extracts using malachite green. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55(3), 892–895. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500030046x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prats, S. A., dos Santos Martins, M. A., Malvar, M. C., Ben-Hur, M., & Keizer, J. J. (2014). Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion. Science of the Total Environment, 468, 464–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scit-otenv.2013.08.066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rieger, W. A. (1992). Field experiments and measurement programs in geomorphology-Slaymaker, O. Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien, 36(3), 302–302.Google Scholar
- Sojka, R. E., & Lentz, R. D. (1997). Reducing furrow irrigation erosion with polyacrylamide (PAM). Journal Of Production Agriculture, 10(1), 47–52. https://doi.org/10.2134/jpa1997.0047.
- Sharpley, A. N. (1985). Depth of surface soil-runoff interaction as affected by rainfall, soil slope, and management. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49(4), 1010.Google Scholar
- Sojka, R. E., Lentz, R. D., & Westermann, D. T. (1998). Water and erosion management with m-ultiple applications of polyacrylamide in furrow irrigation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62(6), 1672–1680. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200060027x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sojka, R. E., Bjorneberg, D. L., Entry, J. A., Lentz, R. D., & Orts, W. J. (2007). Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Advances in agronomy (Vol. 92, pp. 75−+, Advances in Agronomy). https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2113(04)92002-0.
- Wallace, A. (1998). Use of water-soluble polyacrylamide for control of furrow irrigation-induced soil erosion. Books in soils, plants, and the environment; handbook of soil conditioners.Google Scholar