Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:339 | Cite as

Amendment Type and Dose Effects onto Coexisting Copper, Lead, and Nickel Ions Distribution in Soil

  • Marija Šljivić-IvanovićEmail author
  • Ivana Smičiklas
  • Mihajlo Jović
  • Slavko Dimović
  • Antonije Onjia


The use of soil additives for toxic metals chemical stabilization aims to decrease in situ the pollutants’ mobility and availability. In this study, the effectiveness of rinsed red mud (RBRM) and annealed animal bones (B400) was compared in terms of Cu, Pb and Ni stabilization in two contaminated soils with contrasting properties Dystric Cambisol (CM dy) and Rendzic Leptosol (LP rz). The mobility of metals in unamended soil samples (control) and samples amended with 1% and 5% of selected additives were compared using sequential extraction protocol. The relative content of metals in readily and potentially available fractions was higher in CM dy (62% Pb, 13% Cu, and 31% Ni in exchangeable fraction) than in LP rz (< 5% of Pb, Cu, Ni in exchangeable fraction). In CM dy, both additives have caused a decrease in metal mobility with an increase of their doses. The effect of 5% sorbent addition was most pronounced related to Pb immobilization, provoking decrease of exchangeable Pb content to < 10%. Furthermore, B400 addition has redistributed investigated metals from the exchangeable to the residual phase more effectively than RBRM, and its effect on metal mobility decreased in the order Pb > Cu > Ni. Amending of LP rz soil had limited effects with no apparent decrease in exchangeable metal content. The effects of soil type variation, the type of additive and the additive dose onto metal mobility were compared according to ANOVA results. The content of readily and potentially available forms of metals was found to be (i) significantly correlated with all investigated variables for Pb, (ii) significantly correlated with soil type for Cu, and (iii) not in significant correlation with selected variables for Ni. Complex impacts of soil properties and treatment conditions on the mobility of co-contaminants emphasize the need for an individual approach to each case of contamination.


Soil remediation Toxic metals Mobility Waste valorization Soil additives Sequential extraction 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project III43009).


  1. Adamo, P., Iavazzo, P., Albanese, S., Agrelli, D., De Vivo, B., & Lima, A. (2014). Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils. The Science of the Total Environment, 500-501, 11–22. Scholar
  2. Admassu, W., & Breese, T. (1999). Feasibility of using natural fishbone apatite as a substitute for hydroxyapatite in remediating aqueous heavy metals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 69, 187–196. Scholar
  3. Bolan, N., Kunhikrishnan, A., Thangarajan, R., Kumpiene, J., Park, J., Makino, T., Kirkham, M. B., & Scheckel, K. (2014). Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils – To mobilize or to immobilize? Journal of Hazardous Materials, 266, 141–166. Scholar
  4. Borovec, Z., Tolar, V., & Mraz, L. (1993). Distribution of some metals i n sediments of the central part of the Labe (Elbe) river: Czech Republic. Ambio, 22, 200–205.Google Scholar
  5. Bradl, H. B. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 277, 1–18. Scholar
  6. Campanella, L., D’Orazio, D., Petronio, B. M., & Pietrantonio, E. (1995). Proposal for a metal speciation study in sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta, 309, 387–393. Scholar
  7. Chen, X., Wright, J. V., Conca, J. L., & Peurrung, L. M. (1997). Effects of pH on heavy metal sorption on mineral apatite. Environmental Science & Technology. Scholar
  8. Dimović, S., Smičiklas, I., Plećaš, I., Antonović, D., & Mitrić, M. (2009). Comparative study of differently treated animal bones for Co2+ removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dimović, S., Smičiklas, I., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., & Dojčinović, B. (2013). Speciation of 90Sr and other metal cations in artificially contaminated soils: the influence of bone sorbent addition. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13, 383–393. Scholar
  10. Elkhatib, E. A., Elshebiny, G. M., & Balba, A. M. (1991). Lead sorption in calcareous soils. Environmental Pollution, 69, 269–276. Scholar
  11. European Commission (1986). 86/278/EEC. Off. J. Eur. Communities.Google Scholar
  12. Evanko, C., & Dzombak, D. (1997). Remediation of metals-contaminated soils and groundwater. Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  13. Fernández-Calviño, D., Cutillas-Barreiro, L., Paradelo-Núñez, R., Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C., Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J., Álvarez-Rodríguez, E., Núñez-Delgado, A., & Arias-Estévez, M. (2017). Heavy metals fractionation and desorption in pine bark amended mine soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 192, 79–88. Scholar
  14. Fresno, T., Moreno-Jiménez, E., Zornoza, P., & Peñalosa, J. M. (2018). Aided phytostabilisation of As- and Cu-contaminated soils using white lupin and combined iron and organic amendments. Journal of Environmental Management, 205, 142–150. Scholar
  15. Gabarrón, M., Faz, A., Martínez-Martínez, S., & Acosta, J. A. (2018). Change in metals and arsenic distribution in soil and their bioavailability beside old tailing ponds. Journal of Environmental Management, 212, 292–300. Scholar
  16. Garau, G., Castaldi, P., Santona, L., Deiana, P., & Melis, P. (2007). Influence of red mud, zeolite and lime on heavy metal immobilization, culturable heterotrophic microbial populations and enzyme activities in a contaminated soil. Geoderma. Scholar
  17. Garrido-Rodriguez, B., Cutillas-Barreiro, L., Fernández-Calviño, D., Arias-Estévez, M., Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J., Álvarez-Rodríguez, E., & Núñez-Delgado, A. (2014). Competitive adsorption and transport of cd, cu, Ni and Zn in a mine soil amended with mussel shell. Chemosphere, 107, 379–385. Scholar
  18. Gondek, K., Mierzwa-Hersztek, M., & Kopeć, M. (2018). Mobility of heavy metals in sandy soil after application of composts produced from maize straw, sewage sludge and biochar. Journal of Environmental Management, 210, 87–95. Scholar
  19. Harter, R. D. (1983). Effect of soil pH on adsorption of Lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47, 47–51. Scholar
  20. Hua, Y., Heal, K. V., & Friesl-Hanl, W. (2017). The use of red mud as an immobiliser for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Scholar
  21. IUSS Working Group WRB (2006). World reference base for soil resources 2006, World Soil Resources Reports No. 103. Scholar
  22. Kennedy, V. H., Sanchez, A. L., Oughton, D. H., & Rowland, A. P. (1997). Use of single and sequential chemical Extractants to assess radionuclide and heavy metal availability from soils for root uptake. The Analyst. Scholar
  23. Kersten, M., & Förstner, U. (1986). Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in anoxic estuarine and coastal sediments. Water Science and Technology, 18, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kloke, A., Sauerbeck, D. R., & Vetter, H. (1984). The contamination of plants and soils with heavy metals and the transport of metals in terrestrial food chains. In J. O. Nriagu (Ed.), Changing Metal Cycles and Human Health (pp. 113–141). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee, S. H., Lee, J. S., Jeong Choi, Y., & Kim, J. G. (2009). In situ stabilization of cadmium-, lead-, and zinc-contaminated soil using various amendments. Chemosphere, 77, 1069–1075. Scholar
  26. Li, S., & Jia, Z. (2018). Heavy metals in soils from a representative rapidly developing megacity (SW China): levels, source identification and apportionment. Catena, 163, 414–423. Scholar
  27. Martin, W. A., Larson, S. L., Felt, D. R., Wright, J., Griggs, C. S., Thompson, M., Conca, J. L., & Nestler, C. C. (2008). The effect of organics on lead sorption onto Apatite II™. Applied Geochemistry, 23, 34–43. Scholar
  28. Method 1311 (2015). Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, the effects of brief mindfulness intervention on acute pain experience: an examination of individual difference.
  29. Milačič, R., Zuliani, T., & Ščančar, J. (2012). Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures. Science of the Total Environment, 426, 359–365. Scholar
  30. Milenković, A., Smičiklas, I., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., & Vukelić, N. (2015). Concurrent Co2+ and Sr2+ sorption from binary mixtures using aluminum industry waste: Kinetic study. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 89, 2461–2465. Scholar
  31. Nightingale, E. R. (1959). Phenomenological theory of ion solvation. Effective radii of hydrated ions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 63, 1381–1387. Scholar
  32. Prost, R. (1998). Contaminated Soils(Les Colloques). Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) Editions, Paris.Google Scholar
  33. Puga, A. P., Melo, L. C. A., de Abreu, C. A., & Coscione, A. R. (2016). Leaching and fractionation of heavy metals in mining soils amended with biochar. Soil and Tillage Research, 164, 25–33. Scholar
  34. Quevauviller, P., Rauret, G., López-Sánchez, J.-F., Rubio, R., Ure, A., & Muntau, H. (1997). Certification of trace metal extractable contents in a sediment reference material (CRM 601) following a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Science of the Total Environment, 205, 223–234. Scholar
  35. Rodr’iguez, L., Gómez, R., Sánchez, V., & Alonso-Azcárate, J. (2016). Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 6046–6054. Scholar
  36. Saleh, T. A., & Gupta, V. K. (2014). Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 211, 93–101. Scholar
  37. Seco-Reigosa, N., Bermúdez-Couso, A., Garrido-Rodr’iguez, B., Arias-Estévez, M., Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J., Álvarez-Rodr’iguez, E., & Núñez-Delgado, A. (2013). As(V) retention on soils and forest by-products and other waste materials. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 6574–6583. Scholar
  38. Serrano, S., O’Day, P. A., Vlassopoulos, D., García-González, M. T., & Garrido, F. (2009). A surface complexation and ion exchange model of Pb and Cd competitive sorption on natural soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 543–558. Scholar
  39. Shaheen, S. M., Tsadilas, C. D., Niazi, N. K., Hseu, Z.-Y., Selim, M., & Rinklebe, J. (2018). Impact of biosolid application rates on competitive sorption and distribution coefficients of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in an Alfisol and an Entisol. Process Safety and Environment Protection, 115, 38–48. Scholar
  40. Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Milenković, A., Jović, M., Dimović, S., Mraković, A., & Smičiklas, I. (2016). Ni(II) immobilization by bio-apatite materials: appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 22, 117–126. Scholar
  41. Smičiklas, I., Onjia, A., Raičević, S., Janaćković, Đ., & Mitrić, M. (2008). Factors influencing the removal of divalent cations by hydroxyapatite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 876–884. Scholar
  42. Smičiklas, I., Jović, M., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Mrvić, V., Čakmak, D., & Dimović, S. (2015). Correlation of Sr2+ retention and distribution with properties of different soil types. Geoderma, 253-254, 21–29. Scholar
  43. Smiljanić, S., Smičiklas, I., Perić-Grujić, A., Lončar, B., & Mitrić, M. (2010). Rinsed and thermally treated red mud sorbents for aqueous Ni2+ ions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 162, 75–83. Scholar
  44. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844–851. Scholar
  45. US EPA (1994). Method 1312: synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), in: Test methods for evaluating solid waste: physical /chemical methods; SW-846. pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  46. US EPA (2007). Method 3051 a, microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments, sludges, soils and oils. [WWW Document]. URL
  47. Valipour, M., Shahbazi, K., Khanmirzaei, A, (2016). Chemical immobilization of lead, cadmium, copper, and nickel in contaminated soils by phosphate amendments. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water 44, 572–578. Scholar
  48. Zhu, Y., Huang, B., Zhu, Z., Liu, H., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liang, M. (2016). Characterization, dissolution and solubility of the hydroxypyromorphite-hydroxyapatite solid solution [(PbxCa1-x)5(PO4)3OH] at 25 °C and pH 2-9. Geochemical Transactions, 17, 1–18. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty for Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations