Advertisement

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:305 | Cite as

Surfactants in the Sea Surface Microlayer, Underlying Water and Atmospheric Particles of Tropical Coastal Ecosystems

  • Royston Uning
  • Mohd Talib Latif
  • Kai Ling Yu
  • Sze Yin Cheng
  • Fatimah Ahamad
  • Md Firoz Khan
  • Edmand Andrew Bedurus
  • Suhaimi Suratman
Article

Abstract

This study aims to determine the composition of surfactants in the sea surface microlayer (SML), underlying water (ULW) and atmospheric particles (AP). Surfactants were determined colorimetrically as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) for anionic and cationic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) in ULW was determined so as to indicate the influence of ULW to the surfactants in SML. The results showed that the concentration of MBAS and DBAS in SML at both stations ranged between 0.05 and 0.31 μmol L−1, and between 0.19 and 0.59 μmol L−1, respectively. Surfactants in ULW influence the concentration of surfactants in SML (r = 0.65, p < 0.01, n = 36). The station influenced by anthropogenic sources showed a higher concentration of surfactants in ULW, SML and AP. This finding suggests fine mode atmospheric particles (FMAP) are the main carrier for anionic surfactants as MBAS in the coastal ecosystem. Anionic surfactants as MBAS were found as better indicator of anthropogenic sources than cationic ones.

Keywords

Anionic Cationic Colorimetric Surface microlayer Particles Tropical condition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for their logistical support during sampling. Special thanks to K. Alexander who helped proofread this manuscript.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) under E-Science Fund 04-01-02-SF1259 research grant and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Research University Grant (AP-2015-010).

References

  1. Ahmed, M., Guo, X. X., & Zhao, X. N. (2016). Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia. Atmospheric Environment, 141, 219–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alsalahi, M. A., Latif, M. T., Ali, M. M., Magam, S. M., Wahid, N. B., Khan, M. F., et al. (2014). Distribution of surfactants along the estuarine area of Selangor River, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80(1–2), 344–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asok, A. K., & Jisha, M. S. (2012). Biodegradation of the anionic surfactant linear Alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by autochthonous Pseudomonas sp. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223(8), 5039–5048.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1256-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cincinelli, A., Stortini, A. M., Perugini, M., Checchini, L., & Lepri, L. (2001). Organic pollutants in sea-surface microlayer and aerosol in the coastal environment of Leghorn- (Tyrrhenian Sea). Marine Chemistry, 76(1–2), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cochran, R. E., Laskina, O., Jayarathne, T., Laskin, A., Laskin, J., Lin, P., et al. (2016). Analysis of organic anionic surfactants in fine and coarse fractions of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol. Environmental Science and Technology, 50, 2477–2486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins, D. B., Bertram, T. H., Sultana, C. M., Lee, C., Axson, J. L., & Prather, K. A. (2016). Phytoplankton blooms weakly influence the cloud forming ability of sea spray aerosol. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 9975–9983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cunliffe, M., Engel, A., Frka, S., Gašparović, B., Guitart, C., Murrell, J. C., et al. (2013). Sea surface microlayers: a unified physicochemical and biological perspective of the air–ocean interface. Progress in Oceanography, 109, 104–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2012.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dang, N. P., Landfald, B., & Willassen, N. P. (2016). Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria. Environmental Technology, 37(9), 1151–1158.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1103784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duce, R. A., LaRoche, J., Altieri, K., Arrigo, K. R., Baker, A. R., Capone, D. G., et al. (2008). Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean. Science, 320(5878), 893–897.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1150369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elliott, S., Burrows, S. M., Deal, C., Liu, X., Long, M., Ogunro, O., et al. (2014). Prospects for simulating macromolecular surfactant chemistry at the ocean–atmosphere boundary. Environmental Research Letters, 9(6), 064012.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Engel, A., Bange, H. W., Cunliffe, M., Burrows, S. M., Friedrichs, G., Galgani, L., et al. (2017). The ocean's vital skin: toward an integrated understanding of the sea surface microlayer. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00165.
  12. Frew, N. M., Goldman, J. C., Dennett, M. R., & Johnson, A. S. (1990). Impact of phytoplankton-generated surfactants on air-sea gas exchange. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(C3), 3337.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JC095iC03p03337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frka, S., Dautović, J., Kozarac, Z., ĆosoviĆ, B., Hoffer, A., & Kiss, G. (2012). Surface-active substances in atmospheric aerosol: an electrochemical approach. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 64, 18490.  https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gašparović, B., & Ćosović, B. (2003). Surface-active properties of organic matter in the North Adriatic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 58(3), 555–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(03)00133-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamilton, B., Dean, C., Kurata, N., Vella, K., Soloviev, A., Tartar, A., et al. (2015). Surfactant associated bacteria in the sea surface microlayer: case studies in the straits of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 41(2), 135–143.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07038992.2015.1048849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harvey, G. W., & Burzell, L. A. (1972). Simple microlayer mathod for small samples. Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 156–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang, Y. J., Brimblecombe, P., Lee, C. L., & Latif, M. T. (2015). Surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer and sub-surface water at estuarine locations: their concentration, distribution, enrichment, and relation to physicochemical characteristics. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 97(1–2), 78–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jaafar, S. A., Latif, M. T., Chian, C. W., Han, W. S., Wahid, N. B., Razak, I. S., et al. (2014). Surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosol around the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 84(1–2), 35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.05.047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jaafar, S. A., Latif, M. T., Razak, I. S., Shaharudin, M. Z., Khan, M. F., Wahid, N. B., et al. (2016). Monsoonal variations in atmospheric surfactants at different coastal areas of the Malaysian Peninsula. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109(1), 480–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jahne, B. H. H. (1998). Air-water gas exchange. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 443–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krishnamurthy, A., Moore, J. K., Mahowald, N., Luo, C., Doney, S. C., Lindsay, K., et al. (2009). Impacts of increasing anthropogenic soluble iron and nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23(3), GB3016.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gb003440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuhnhenn, V., Kragel, J., Horstmann, U., & Miller, R. (2006). Surface shear rheological studies of marine phytoplankton cultures-Nitzschia closterium, Thalassiosira rotula, Thalassiosira punctigera and Phaeocystis sp. Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 47(1), 29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2005.11.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kurata, N., Vella, K., Hamilton, B., Shivji, M., Soloviev, A., Matt, S., et al. (2016). Surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean. Scientific Reports, 6, 19123.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Latif, M. T., Wanfi, L., Hanif, N. M., Roslan, R. N., Ali, M. M., & Mushrifah, I. (2012). Composition and distribution of surfactants around Lake Chini, Malaysia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(3), 1325–1334.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2043-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Law, C. S., Smith, M. J., Harvey, M. J., Bell, T. G., Cravigan, L. T., Elliott, F. C., et al. (2017). Overview and preliminary results of the surface ocean aerosol production (SOAP) campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(22), 13645–13667.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13645-2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liss, P. S., & Duce, R. A. (1997). The sea surface and global change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pepi, M., Focardi, S., Lobianco, A., Angelini, D. L., Borghini, F., & Focardi, S. E. (2013). Degradation of fatty acids and production of biosurfactant as an added value, by a bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa DG2a isolated from aquaculture wastewaters. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 224(11).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1772-1.
  28. Pereira, R., Schneider-Zapp, K., & Upstill-Goddard, R. C. (2016). Surfactant control of gas transfer velocity along an offshore coastal transect: results from a laboratory gas exchange tank. Biogeosciences, 13(13), 3981–3989.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3981-2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pereira-Filho, J., Schettini, C. A. F., Rörig, L., & Siegle, E. (2001). Intratidal variation and net transport of dissolved inorganic nutrients, POC and chlorophyll a in the Camboriú River estuary, Brazil. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 53(2), 249–257.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Poschl, U., & Shiraiwa, M. (2015). Multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere-biosphere interface influencing climate and public health in the anthropocene. Chemical Reviews, 115(10), 4440–4475.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500487s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Razak, I. S., Latif, M. T., Jaafar, S. A., Khan, M. F., & Mushrifah, I. (2015). Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater around lake ecosystem. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 22(8), 6024–6033.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3781-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roslan, R. N., Hanif, N. M., Othman, M. R., Azmi, W. N., Yan, X. X., Ali, M. M., et al. (2010). Surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer and their contribution to atmospheric aerosols around coastal areas of the Malaysian peninsula. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(9), 1584–1590.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Liger-Belair, G., Koch, B. P., Flerus, R., Kattner, G., Harir, M., et al. (2012). Dissolved organic matter in sea spray: a transfer study from marine surface water to aerosols. Biogeosciences, 9(4), 1571–1582.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-1571-2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott, M. J., & Jones, M. N. (2000). The biodegradation of surfactants in the environment. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 1508, 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sur, M. R. I. (2015). Distributions of anionic surfactant in sea water and total organic carbon in bottom-surface sediment along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 15, 677–690.  https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v15_3_12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suratman, S., & Latif, M. T. (2015). Reassessment of nutrient status in Setiu wetland, Terengganu, Malaysia. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 27(1), 239–242.  https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2015.16886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang, Z., Liu, L., Liu, C., & Cai, W. (2003). Studies on the sea surface microlayer. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 264(1), 148–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9797(03)00390-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ẑutić, V., Ćosović, B., Marčenko, E., Bihari, N., & Kršinić, F. (1981). Surfactant production by marine phytoplankton. Marine Chemistry, 10(6), 505–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(81)90004-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Tropical Climate Change System (IKLIM), Institute of Climate ChangeUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Oceanography and EnvironmentUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala TerengganuMalaysia

Personalised recommendations