Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:303 | Cite as

Examining the Effects of the Destroying Ammunition, Mines and Explosive Devices on the Presence of Heavy Metals in Soil of Open Detonation Pit; Part 2: Determination of Heavy Metal Fractions

  • Neda Tešan TomićEmail author
  • Slavko Smiljanić
  • M. Jović
  • M. Gligorić
  • D. Povrenović
  • A. Došić


As a result of the destruction of ammunition, mines, and explosive devices by the method of open detonation, the increased concentration of heavy metals is often recorded in the soil of military polygons, which is a serious ecological problem. However, in order to determine the potential risk of such locations to the environment, it is necessary to determine, in addition to the total content, the forms in which the metals are present. In this paper, a sequential extraction method was used to analyze the six fractions of five heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, and zinc) in the soil of the polygon for destruction of ammunition, mines, and explosive devices. Samples were collected from the place of direct detonation (so-called pits) and from the edge of the pit. The aim of this research is determination of metal speciation in order to obtain a better insight in their mobility and risk arising from this. The results showed that heavy metals are predominantly present in the residual, oxide, and organic fractions. Cd and Cu were also significantly present in the mobile fractions due to conducted activities on the polygon. To assess the potential environmental risk of soil, the risk assessment code (RAC) and individual (ICF) and global (GCF) contamination factors were used. According to the RAC, the mobility and bioavailability of the analyzed heavy metals decreases in the following order: Cd > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni. ICF results show low to moderate risk, while GCF results show low risk in terms of heavy metal contamination in the examined area.


Open detonation Heavy metals Sequential extraction Risk assessment 

Supplementary material

11270_2018_3950_MOESM1_ESM.docx (177 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 176 kb)


  1. Abdu, N. (2010). Availability, transfer and balances of heavy metals in urban agriculture of West Africa. Kassel, Germany: Kassel University Press GmbH.Google Scholar
  2. Adriano, D. C. (2001). Trace elements in terrestrial environments: biogeochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals, Springer-Verlag (second ed.880 pp). New York.Google Scholar
  3. Aiju, L., Yanchun, G., Honghai, W., & Gao Peiling, G. (2012). An assessment of heavy metals contamination in Xiaofu River sediments through chemical speciation study. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 5(5), 1235–1240.Google Scholar
  4. Alverbro, K., Björklund, A., Finnveden, G., Hochschorner, E., & Hägvall, J. (2009). A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 1101–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ampleman, G., Thiboutot, S., Diaz, E., Brochu, S., Martel, R., & Walsh, M. (2013). New range design and mitigation methods for sustainable training. Finnish Ministry of Defence: European Conference of Defence and the Environment.Google Scholar
  6. Appel, C., & Ma, L. (2002). Concentration, pH, and surface charge effects on cadmium and lead sorption in three tropical soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 581–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banerjee, A. D. K. (2003). Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India. Environmental Pollution, 123, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barać, N. M. (2017). Mobilnost i biodostupnost odabranih elemenata u poljoprivrednom zemljištu aluviona reke Ibar, Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Tehnološko-metaluruški fakultet, (In Serbian).Google Scholar
  9. Barona, A., Aranguiz, I., & Elias, A. (1999). Assessment of metal extraction, distribution and contamination in surface soils by a 3-step sequential extraction procedure. Chemosphere, 39(11), 1911–1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belanović, S., Knežević, M., Kadović, R., & Danilović, M. (2003). Distribucija nekih teških metala u zemljištima bukovih zajednica NP Đerdap. Glasnik Šumskog fakulteta, Beograd, 88, 17–25 (In Serbian).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Best Practice Guide on the Destruction of Conventional Ammunition (2008). Government of the Netherlands. ,FSC.DEL/59/08/Rev.1., Accessed 10 January 2018.
  12. Bogdanović, D. (2002). Izvori zagađenja zemljišta kadmijumom. Review, Letopis naučnih radova, 1, 32–42 (In Serbian).Google Scholar
  13. Bradl, H.B., Kim, C., Kramar, U., Stiiben, D. (2005). Interactions of heavy metals, Chapter 2, Heavy metal in the Environment, Elsevier. 28–164.Google Scholar
  14. Canuto, F. A. B., Garcia, C. A. B., Alves, J. P. H., & Passos, E. A. (2013). Mobility and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in polluted estuarine sediments using a sequential extraction scheme. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(7), 6173–6185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerqueira, B., Vega, F. A., Serra, C., Silva, L.F.O., Andrade, M.L. (2011). Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy: a preliminary study of the distribution of Cu2+ and Cu2+/Pb2+ on a Bt horizon sufrace. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, 422–431.Google Scholar
  16. Certini, G., Scalenghe, R., & Woods, W. I. (2013). The impact of warfare on the soil environment. Earth-Science Reviews, 127, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen, T. H. (1984). Cadmium soil sorption at low concentration. I. Effect of time, cadmium load, pH and calcium. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 21, 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cordos, E., Rautiu, R., Roman, C., Ponta, M., Frentiu, T., Sarkany, A., Fodorpataki, L., Macalik, K., McCormick, C., & Weiss, D. (2003). Characterization of the rivers system in the mining and industrial area of Baia Mare, Romania. European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, 3, 324–335.Google Scholar
  19. Dar, G. H. (1996). Effects of cadmium and sewage-sludge on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Bioresource Technology, 56, 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davutluoglu, O. I., Seckin, G., Ersu, C. B., Yilmaz, T., & Sari, B. (2011). Heavy metal content and distribution in surface sediments of the Seyhan River, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 2250–2259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Passos, E. A., Alves, J. C., dos Santos, I. S., do Alves, J. P. H., Garcia, C. A. B., & Spinola Costa, A. C. (2010). Assessment of trace metals contamination in estuarine sediments using a sequential extraction technique and principal component analysis. Microchemical Journal, 96(1), 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dias da Silva, A. A., Brum, T., Barbosa, M. C., & Soares Marques, M. E. (2014). Investigation of a military site for destruction of ammunitions by open detonation with emphasis on Pb and Cu contamination (pp. 1–8). Brasil: XVII Congreso Brasilero de Mecánica dos Solos e Engenharia Geotécnica.Google Scholar
  23. Doelman, P., & Haanstra, L. (1984). Short-term and long-term effects of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc on soil microbial respiration in relation to abiotic soil factors. Plant Soil, 79, 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dostava informacija za poligon Glamoč, Hercegbosanske šume d.o.o. Kupres, broj: 01/ 1–1862/15 od 05.11.2015. (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  25. Duddridge, J. E., & Wainwright, M. (1981). Heavy metals in river sediments—calculation of metal adsorption maxima using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical, 2, 387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durres (2012.). Stanje u oblasti naoružanja i municije u OS BiH, Ministarstvo odbrane BiH, (In Serbian).Google Scholar
  27. Farrah, H., & Pickering, W. F. (1977). The sorption of lead and cadmium species by clay minerals. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 30, 1417–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghrefat, H., Jusuf, N., Jamarh, A., & Nazzal, J. (2012). Fractionation and risk assessment of heavy metals in soil samples collected along Zerqa River. Jordan, Environmental Earth Sciences, 66(1), 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greičiûté, K., Juozulynas, A., Šurkienė, G., & Valeikienė, V. (2007). Research on soil disturbance and pollution with heavy metals in military grounds. Geologija, no, 57, 14–20.Google Scholar
  30. Guillén, M. T., Delgado, J., Albanese, S., Nieto, J. M., Lima, A., & De Vivo, B. (2012). Heavy metals fractionation and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate the environmental risk in soils of Huelva Township (SW Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 119–120, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guo, P., Xie, Z., Li, J., Kang, C., & Liu, J. (2005). Relationships between fractionations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni and soil properties in urban soils of Changchun, China. Chinese Geographical Science, 15, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gworek, B., & Mocek, A. (2003). Comparison of sequential extraction methods with reference to zinc fractions in contaminated soils. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 12(1), 41–48.Google Scholar
  33. Hagfors, M. (2013). Destruction of old expired and spoiled munition in Finland—environmental effects of open surface mass detonations, Finnish Defence Forces Technical Research Centre, Explosives and NBC Defence Division, Explosives Technology, European Conference of Defence and the Environment, Finnish Ministry of Defence, 119–128.Google Scholar
  34. Han, F. X., Banin, A., Kingery, W. L., Triplett, G. B., Zhou, L. X., Zheng, S. J., & Ding, W. X. (2003). New approach to studies of heavy metal redistribution in soil. Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hessling, J.L., Esposito, M.P., Traver, R.P., Snow, R.H. (1989). Results of bench-scale research efforts to wash contaminated soils at battery-recycling facilities. Metals Speciation, Separation, and Recovery. Patterson, J.W., Passino, R. (Eds.), Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 497–514.Google Scholar
  36. Ikem, A., Egiebor, O. N., & Nyavor, K. (2003). Trace elements in water, fish and sediment from Tuskegee Lake, southern USA. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 149, 51–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Inmaculada, R., Ángel, F. J. M., & Abelardo, G. P. (2004). The influence of pH and salinity on the toxicity of heavy metals in sediment to the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 1100–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. ISO 10381–1:2002, Soil quality - Sampling - Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes.Google Scholar
  39. ISO 10381–2:2002, Soil quality - Sampling - Part 2: Guidance on sampling technique.Google Scholar
  40. Jain, C. K. (2004). Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna. India, Water Research, 38, 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jamali, M. K., Kazi, T. G., Afridi, H. I., Arain, M. B., Jalbani, N., & Memon, A. R. (2007). Speciation of heavy metals in untreated domestic wastewater sludge by time saving BCR sequential extraction method. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 42, 649–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jena, V., Gupta, S., Dhundhel, R. S., Matic, N., Bilinski, S. F., & Dević, N. (2013). Determination of total heavy metal by sequential extraction from soil. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technology, 3(1), 35–38.Google Scholar
  43. Jurinak, J. J., & Bauer, N. (1956). Thermodynamics of zinc adsorption on calcite, dolomite and magnesite-type minerals. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 20, 466–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kabata-Pendias, A. (2011). Trace elements in soils and plants. Fourth Edition. CRC Press, Taylor Francis Group, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  45. Kashem, M. A., Singh, B. R., & Kawai, S. (2007). Mobility and distribution of cadmium, nickel and zinc in contaminated soil profiles from Bangladesh. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 77, 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kashem, M. A., Singh, B. R., Imamul Huq, S. M., & Kawai, S. (2011). Fractionation and mobility of cadmium, lead and zinc in some contaminated and non-contaminated soils of Japan. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 3(9), 241–249.Google Scholar
  47. Kastori, R. (1997). Teški metali u životnoj sredini, Naučni institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad, (In Serbian).Google Scholar
  48. Kierczak, J., Neel, C., Aleksander-Kwaterczak, U., Helios Rybicka, E., Bril, H., & Puziewicz, J. (2008). Solid speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements from natural and contaminated soils: A combined approach. Chemosphere, 73, 776–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kubová, J., Matúš, P., Bujdoš, M., Hagarová, I., & Medved, J. (2008). Utilization of optimized BCR three-step sequential and dilute HCl single extraction procedures for soil–plant metal transfer predictions in contaminated lands. Talanta, 75(4), 1110–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li, X., & Thornton, I. (2001). Chemical partitioning of trace and major elements in soils contaminated by mining and smelting activities. Applied Geochemistry, 16, 1693–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li, P., Lin, C., Cheng, H., Duan, X., & Lei, K. (2015). Contamination and health risks of soil heavy metals around a lead/zinc smelter in southwestern China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 113, 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lighthart, B., Baham, J., & Volk, V. V. (1983). Microbial respiration and chemical speciation in metal-amended soils. Journal of.Environmental Quality, 12, 543–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lin, J.-G., & Chen, S.-Y. (1998). The relationship between adsorption of heavy metal and organic matter in river sediments. Environment International, 24, 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lin, Z., Comet, B., Qvarfort, U., & Herbert, R. (1995). The chemical and mineralogical behaviorof Pb in shooting range soils from Central Sweden. Environmental Pollution, 89, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Linsday, W. L. (1972). Zinc in Soil and Plant Nutrition. Advances in Agronomy, 24, 147–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu, A., Zhang, S., & Shan, X. (2004). Time effect on the fractionation of heavy metals in soils. Geoderma, 125(3–4), 225–234.Google Scholar
  57. Ma, L. Q., & Rao, G. N. (1997). Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malandrino, M., Abollino, O., Buoso, S., Giacomino, A., La Gioia, C., & Mentasti, E. (2011). Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite. Chemosphere, 82, 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manninen, S., & Tanskanen, N. (1993). Transfer of lead from shotgun pellets to humus and three plant species in a Finnish shooting range. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 24, 410–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marković, J., Jović, M., Smičiklas, I., Pezo, L., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Onjia, A., & Popović, A. (2016). Chemical speciation of metals in unpolluted soils of different types: Correlation with soil characteristics and an ANN modelling approach. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 165, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Matong, J. M., Nyaba, L., & Nomngongo, P. N. (2016). Fractionation of trace elements in agricultural soils using ultrasound assisted sequential extraction prior to inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometric determination. Chemosphere, 154, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mihelič, B. (2012). Energetske materije - eksplozivi, baruti i pirotehničke smješe, Bezbednost u radu sa ubojnim sredstvima, skladištenje, čuvanje i uništavanje ubojnih sredstava, Kragujevac, (In Serbian).Google Scholar
  63. Moore, F., Nematollahi, M. J., & Keshavarzi, B. (2015). Heavy metals fractionation insurface sediments of Gowatr bay-Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naji, A., & Ismail, A. R. (2011). Spatial variation and binding behavior of Cu and Pb in surface sediments of Klang River. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 2(2), 91–96.Google Scholar
  65. Nannoni, F., Protano, G., & Riccobono, F. (2011). Fractionation and geochemical mobility of heavy elements in soils of a mining area in northern Kosovo. Geoderma, 161(1–2), 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nemati, K., Bakar, N. K. A., Abas, M. R., & Sobhanzadeh, E. (2011a). Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in different depths of sediments from Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192(1), 402–410.Google Scholar
  67. Nemati, K., Bakar, N. K. A., Abas, M. R., Sobhanzadeh, E., & Low, K. H. (2011b). Comparison of unmodified and modified BCR sequential extraction schemes for the fractionation of heavy metals in shrimp aquaculture sludge from Selangor, Malaysia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 176(1–4), 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ogundiran, M. B., & Osibanjo, O. (2009). Mobility and speciation of heavy metals in soils impacted by hazardous waste. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 21(2), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Olajire, A. A., Ayodele, E. T., Oyedirdan, G. O., & Oluyemi, E. A. (2003). Levels and speciation of heavy metals in soils of industrial southern Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 85, 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Prasad, M. N. V. (2008). Trace elements as Contaminants and Nutrients: Cosequnces in Ecosystems and Human Health (p. 777). USA: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pravilnik FBiH 72/09. Pravilnik o utvrđivanju dozvoljenih količina štetnih i opasnih materija u zemljištu i metode njihovog ispitivanja, Službene novine FBiH broj 72/2009 (In Bosnian).Google Scholar
  72. Quevauviller, P., Rauret, G., Muntau, H., Ure, A. M., Rubio, R., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Fiedler, H. D., & Griepink, B. (1994). Evaluation of a sequential extraction procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in sediments. Fresenius. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 349, 808–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Randhawa, N. S., & Broadbent, F. E. (1965). Soil organic matter-metal complexes: 6 stability constants of zinc-humic acid complexes at different pH values. Soil Science, 99, 362–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rauret, G., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Sahuquillo, A., Rubio, R., Davidson, C., Ure, A., & Quevauviller, P. (1999). Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 1, 57–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reddy, K. J., Wan, L., & Gloss, S. P. (1995). Solubility and mobility of copper, zink and lead in acidic enrichments. Plant and Soil, 171, 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rule, J.H. (1998). Trace metal cation adsorption in soils: selective chemical extractions and biological availability. In: A. Dabrowski (ed) Adsorption and its applications industry and environmental protection, Vol. II: application in environmental protection. Studies in surface science and catalysis. Elsevier, 319–349.Google Scholar
  77. SALW (2004). Ammunitions destruction—environmental releases from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) events, SEESAC. , Accessed 20. June 2017.
  78. Sanders, J. R., & Adams, T. M. M. (1987). The effects of pH and soil type on concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel extracted by calcium chloride from sewage sludge-treated soils. Environmental Pollution, 43, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sarkar, S.K., Favas, P.J.C., Rakshit, D., Satpathy, K.K. (2014). Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and sediments, in: Hernandez-Soriano, M.C. (Ed.), Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination. In Tech, p. 918.Google Scholar
  80. Shiowatana, J., Mclaren, R. G., Chanmekha, N., & Samphao, A. (2001). Fractionation of arsenic in soil by a continuous-flow sequential extraction method. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 1940–1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shuman, L. M. (1975). The effect of soil properties on zinc adsorption by soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 39, 454–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smičiklas, I., Jović, M., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Mrvić, V., Čakmak, D., & Dimović, S. (2015). Correlation of Sr2+ retention and distribution with properties of different soil types. Geoderma, 253–254, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sungur, A., Soylak, M., Yilmaz, S., & Ozcan, H. (2014). Determination of heavy metals in sediments of the Ergene River by BCR sequential extraction method. Environmental Earth Sciences, 72(9), 3293–3305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Blsson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analitical Chemistry, 51, 844–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thiboutot, S., Ampleman, G., Brochu, S., Diaz, E., Martel, R., Hawari, J., Sunahara, G., Walsh, M. R., Walsh, M. E., & Jenkins, T. F. (2012). Environmental characterization of military training ranges for munitions – related contaminants: Understanding and minimizing the environmental impacts of live – fire training. International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, 11(Issue 1), 17–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thiboutot, S., Ampleman, G., Brochu, S., Diaz, E., Martel, R., Hawari, J., Sunahara, G., Walsh, M.R. and Walsh, M.E. (2013). Canadian Programme on the environmental impacts of munition, European Conference of Defence and the Environment, Finnish Ministry of Defence.Google Scholar
  87. Thomas, E. Y. (2015). Assessment of heavy metal concentration and fractionation in selected dumpsite soils within Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 4(3), 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ure, A., Quevauviller, P., Munteau, H., Griepink, B. (1993). Improvements in the determination of extractable contents of trace metals in soils and sediments prior to certification. Tech. Rep., Community Bureau of reference, Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  89. Vega, F. A., Andrade, M. L., & Covelo, E. F. (2010). Influence of soil properties on the sorption and retention of cadmium, copper and lead, separatly and together, by 20 soil horizons: comparasion of linear regression and tree regression analyses. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 174, 522–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vig, K., Megharaj, M., Sethunathan, N., & Naidu, R. (2003). Bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to microorganisms and their activities in soil: a review. Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wali, A., Colinet, G., & Ksibi, M. (2014). Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction in soils contaminated by phosphogypsum in Sfax, Tunisia. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 4(70), 14–26.Google Scholar
  92. Yang, Z., Chen, F., Zhang, L., Liua, J., Wu, S., & Kang, M. (2012). Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediment of the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent shelf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 1747–1955.Google Scholar
  93. Yao, Z. G., Bao, Z. Y., Gao, P., Zhang, J. L., Guo, Y. P., Hu, Z. J., & Li, B. L. (2006). Speciation of trace elements in sediments from Dongting Lake, Central China, Water Pollution VIII: Modelling, Monitoring and Management. WIT Transaction on Ekology an the Environment, 95, 119–128.Google Scholar
  94. Zauyah, S., Juliana, B., Noorhafizah, R., Fauziah, C.I., Rosenani, A.B. (2004). Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in some cultivated and uncultivated ultisols and inceptisols in Peninsular Malaysia. Super Soil, 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference., 1–5.Google Scholar
  95. Zeien, H. (1995). Chemische Extraktionen zur Bestimmung der Bindungsformen von Schwermetallen in Böden (Chemical extractions to identify heavy metal binding forms in soils). Bonner Bodenkundliche Abhandlungen, 17, 284 pp.Google Scholar
  96. Zhao, S., Feng, C., Yang, Y., Niu, J., & Shen, Z. (2012). Risk assessment of sedimentary metals in the Yangtze Estuary: new evidence of the relationships between twotypical index methods. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 241–242, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhu, H., Yuan, X., Zeng, G., Jiang, M., Liang, J., Zhang, C., Yin, J., Huang, H., Liu, Z., & Jiang, H. (2012). Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Xiawan Port based on modified potential ecological risk index. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22(6), 1470–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neda Tešan Tomić
    • 1
    Email author
  • Slavko Smiljanić
    • 2
  • M. Jović
    • 3
  • M. Gligorić
    • 2
  • D. Povrenović
    • 4
  • A. Došić
    • 2
  1. 1.Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina
  2. 2.Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of East SarajevoZvornikBosnia and Herzegovina
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Science VinčaUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.Faculty of Technology and MetalurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations