N2O, CO2, Production, and C Sequestration in Vineyards: a Review
Even if it is less polluting than other farm sectors, grape growing management has to adopt measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to preserve the quality of grapevine by-products. In viticulture, by land and crop management, GHG emissions can be reduced through adjusting methods of tillage, fertilizing, harvesting, irrigation, vineyard maintenance, electricity, natural gas, and transport until wine marketing, etc. Besides CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), released from fertilizers and waste/wastewater management are produced in vineyards. As the main GHG in vineyards, N2O can have the same harmful action like large quantities of CO2. Carbon can be found in grape leaves, shoots, and even in fruit pulp, roots, canes, trunk, or soil organic matter. C sequestration in soil by using less tillage and tractor passing is one of the efficient methods to reduce GHG in vineyards, with the inconvenience that many years are needed for detectable changes. In the last decades, among other methods, cover crops have been used as one of the most efficient way to reduce GHG emissions and increase fertility in vineyards. Even if we analyze many references, there are still limited information on practical methods in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in viticulture. The aim of the paper is to review the main GHG emissions produced in vineyards and the approached methods for their reduction, in order to maintain the quality of grapes and other by-products.
KeywordsCarbon Cover crops GHG emissions Grapevine Nitrous oxide C sequestration
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