Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:298 | Cite as

Simultaneous Determination of Phorate and Oxyfluorfen in Well Water Samples with High Accuracy by GC-MS After Binary Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

  • Emel Alkan
  • Fatih Kapukıran
  • Elif Öztürk Er
  • Dotse Selali Chormey
  • Seyfullah KeyfEmail author
  • Nizamettin Özdoğan
  • Sezgin BakırdereEmail author


The potential risk of pesticides to cause harm to humans and other organisms even at trace levels calls for sensitive and accurate analytical techniques for their simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determinations. In this study, a sensitive binary dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (B-DLLME) strategy was developed for the simultaneous determination of phorate and oxyfluorfen by gas chromatography mass spectrometry after extraction/preconcentration from aqueous solution. An experimental design was used to optimize parameters of the B-DLLME method to obtain maximum outcome. Under the optimum conditions of B-DLLME, the limit of detection (LOD) for phorate and oxyfluorfen were found to be 0.41 μg L−1 and 0.54 μg L−1, respectively. The detection limits correlate to about 37 and 73 folds enhancement in detection powers when compared to direct GC-MS determination of phorate and oxyfluorfen, respectively. In order to find out the applicability of developed method to real samples, recovery tests were performed for 20 μg L−1 of phorate and oxyfluorfen spiked in well water samples. Percent recovery values were found to be 94.5% for phorate and 101.9% for oxyfluorfen.


Pesticides Phorate Oxyfluorfen GC-MS DLLME B-DLLME 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emel Alkan
    • 1
  • Fatih Kapukıran
    • 2
  • Elif Öztürk Er
    • 1
  • Dotse Selali Chormey
    • 3
  • Seyfullah Keyf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nizamettin Özdoğan
    • 2
  • Sezgin Bakırdere
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentYıldız Technical UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Institute of Science, Environmental Engineer DepartmentBülent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Art and Science, Chemistry DepartmentYıldız Technical UniversityİstanbulTurkey

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