Evaluation of the Effective Inactivation of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses From Swine Effluent and Sludge at Tropical Temperatures
The safe recycling of organic wastes such as the nutrients obtained from agriculture activities is a relevant aspect of the “One Health” strategy, a worldwide initiative including all aspects of health care for humans and animals, as well as aspects related to the conservation and development of the environment. It represents an important opportunity to mitigate the potential impact of microbial pathogens likely present in nutrient natural sources, as digestate, when applied to land as fertilizers. The objectives of the current study were to determine the inactivation of enteric microorganisms in swine digestate (effluent and sludge) during storage in anaerobic conditions and at different ambient temperatures of tropical zones (16, 22, and 37 °C). Human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2), bacteriophage PhiX-174, and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) were used as enteric microbial models to determine the minimum storage time required to reduce at least 3log of enteric microorganisms load in both matrices at the mentioned temperatures. The minimum storage time required for S. typhimurium was shorter than those observed for viruses at 37 °C, while reduction of at least 3log for S. typhimurium was observed after just 1 day; 20 and 90 days were needed for similar reductions for HAdV-2 and PhiX-174, respectively. Similar results were also observed at lower temperatures: 30 and 45 days were needed for S. typhimurium at 22 and 16 °C, respectively, but 30 and 90 days were needed at 22 °C for HAdV-2 PhiX-174, respectively, or 90 and 120 days at 16 °C for HAdV-2 PhiX-174, respectively. This is a pioneering study on the evaluation of inactivation of enteric viruses in swine digestate in usual tropical ambient temperatures; it demonstrates that the time for a considerable inactivation is longer than that observed for a enteric microorganisms (S. typhimurium), and shows that the storage of swine digestate at the referred temperatures can be used as a low-cost post-treatment to inactivate enteric microorganisms, allowing a further use as safer fertilizer.
KeywordsSwine manure Digestate One health Microorganism inactivation Fertilizer
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Financial support was provided by CNPq, CAPES-PNPD, CAPES-PDSE, and Eletrosul Centrais Elétricas S.A.
- Bertrand, I., Schijven, J. F., Sánchez, G., Wyn-Jones, P., Ottoson, J., Morin, T., Muscillo, M., Verani, M., Nasser, A., De Rosa Husman, A. M., Myrmel, M., Sellwood, J., Cook, N., & Gantzer, C. (2012). The impact of the temperature on the inactivation of enteric viruses in food and water: A review. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 112(6), 1059–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bosshard, C., Sørensen, P., Frossard, E., Dubois, D., Mäder, P., Nanzer, S., & Oberson, A. (2009). Nitrogen use efficiency of 15N-labelled sheep manure and mineral fertiliser applied to microplots in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 83, 271–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- BRAZIL. MINISTÉRIO DA AGRICULTURA, PECUÁRIA E ABASTECIMENTO. Normative Instrution N° 25/2009: Official methods for fertilizer evaluation and production.Google Scholar
- Burton, C.H., Turner, C. 2003. Manure management: treatment strategies for sustainable agriculture. Silsoe Research Institute. 2nd ed. Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, UK.Google Scholar
- EC, 2011. REGULATION (EC) No 142/2011 COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 142/2011 of 25 February 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down health rules as regards animal by-products and derived products not intended for human consumption and implementing Council Directive 97/78/EC as regards certain samples and items exempt from veterinary checks at the border under that Directive.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, L. (2004). Multiple sources of dietary calcium - some aspects of its essentiality. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 39, 67–80. New York.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the Inited Nations (FAO). The state of food and agriculture—innovation in family farming, p, 161, 2014.Google Scholar
- García-González, M. C., Vanotti, M. B., Szogi, A. A. (2016). Recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested manure using gas-permeable membranes. Scientia Agricola, 73(5), 434–438.Google Scholar
- Griffith, R.W., Schwartz, K.J., Meyerholz, D.K. Salmonella. In: Diseases of Swine, 9th Ed., Eds: Straw, BE, Zimmerman JJ, D’Allaire S, Taylor DJ, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. p. 739–751.Google Scholar
- Hernroth, B. E., Conden-Hansson, A. C., Rehnstan-Holm, A. S., Girones, R., & Allard, A. K. (2002). Environmental factors influencing human viral pathogens and their potential indicator organisms in the blue mussel, mytilus edulis: The first Scandinavian report. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 4523–4533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hundesa, A., De Motes, M., Albinana-Gimenez, N. C., Rodriguez-Manzano, J., Bofill-Mas, S., Suñen, E., & Girones, R. (2009). Development of a qPCR assay for the quantification of porcine adenoviruses as na MST tool for swine fecal contamination in the environment. Journal Virology Methods, 72, 7886–7893.Google Scholar
- International Organization For Standardization, ISO 10715–2:2000., 2000. Water Quality – Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages.Google Scholar
- Nguyen-Viet, H., Pham-Duc, P., Nguyen, V., Tanner, M., Odermatt, P., Vu-Van, T., et al. (2015). A one health perspective for integrated human and animal sanitation and nutrient recycling. In J. Zinsstag, E. Schelling, D. Waltner-Toews, M. Whittaker, & M. Tanner (Eds.), One health. The theory and practice of integrated health approaches (pp. 96–107). Boston: Cabi.Google Scholar
- Viancelli, A., Kunz, A., Steinmetz, R. L. R., Kich, J. D., Souza, C. K., Canal, C. W., Coldebella, A., Esteves, P. A., & Barardi, C. R. M. (2013). Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens. Chemos., 90(4), 1539–1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wiesmann, U., Choi, I. S., Dombrowski, E. M. (2007). Fundamentals of biological wastewater treatment. Weinheim: Willey-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.Google Scholar