Evaluation of the Effective Inactivation of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses From Swine Effluent and Sludge at Tropical Temperatures
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The safe recycling of organic wastes such as the nutrients obtained from agriculture activities is a relevant aspect of the “One Health” strategy, a worldwide initiative including all aspects of health care for humans and animals, as well as aspects related to the conservation and development of the environment. It represents an important opportunity to mitigate the potential impact of microbial pathogens likely present in nutrient natural sources, as digestate, when applied to land as fertilizers. The objectives of the current study were to determine the inactivation of enteric microorganisms in swine digestate (effluent and sludge) during storage in anaerobic conditions and at different ambient temperatures of tropical zones (16, 22, and 37 °C). Human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2), bacteriophage PhiX-174, and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) were used as enteric microbial models to determine the minimum storage time required to reduce at least 3log of enteric microorganisms load in both matrices at the mentioned temperatures. The minimum storage time required for S. typhimurium was shorter than those observed for viruses at 37 °C, while reduction of at least 3log for S. typhimurium was observed after just 1 day; 20 and 90 days were needed for similar reductions for HAdV-2 and PhiX-174, respectively. Similar results were also observed at lower temperatures: 30 and 45 days were needed for S. typhimurium at 22 and 16 °C, respectively, but 30 and 90 days were needed at 22 °C for HAdV-2 PhiX-174, respectively, or 90 and 120 days at 16 °C for HAdV-2 PhiX-174, respectively. This is a pioneering study on the evaluation of inactivation of enteric viruses in swine digestate in usual tropical ambient temperatures; it demonstrates that the time for a considerable inactivation is longer than that observed for a enteric microorganisms (S. typhimurium), and shows that the storage of swine digestate at the referred temperatures can be used as a low-cost post-treatment to inactivate enteric microorganisms, allowing a further use as safer fertilizer.
KeywordsSwine manure Digestate One health Microorganism inactivation Fertilizer
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Financial support was provided by CNPq, CAPES-PNPD, CAPES-PDSE, and Eletrosul Centrais Elétricas S.A.
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