Matrix Effect Assessment of an Ion Chromatographic Method to Determine Inorganic Anions in Wastewater
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Inorganic anion monitoring is essential for bioreactor operation and is related for pollution control or energy and products recovery. However, there is a lack of studies validating methods for inorganic anions analyses in conditions compatible to those in bioreactor operations treating different types of wastewater. This paper provides a systematic statistical study and matrix-effect assessment for sugarcane vinasse, leachate, sewage and synthetic sewage. Sample preparation consisted of only a filtration and sample dilution. Cl−, NO2−, NO3−, PO43− and SO42− were determined in a Dionex ICS 5000® equipped with a chemical conductivity suppressor. Calibration curves were linear and well-adjusted between 2.5 and 50 mg L−1 for all the anions in all the tested matrices, except PO43− and SO42− in vinasse. A calibration range for PO43− in all tested matrices was 5.0 to 100 mg L−1, whereas a range from 5.0 mg L−1 to 50 mg L−1 was obtained for SO42− in vinasse. All the anions yielded recoveries in the range of 85–115% for all the tested matrices. Relative standard deviations lower than 10 and 2% were achieved for peak areas and retention times, respectively. A signal enhancement was observed for all the tested matrices and all the anions. The matrix effect level varied from −1.7 (NO2− in vinasse) to −33.9% (Cl− in leachate). Sewage was the less affected matrix, while leachate gave higher matrix effects. Validation results and the matrix effect assessment showed that a simple sample preparation is suitable for multi-elemental analyses of inorganic anions for complex environmental samples.
KeywordsInorganic anion determination Complex matrices Standard addition method Environmental chemistry
The authors acknowledge the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa no Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP 2009/15984-0) and Professor Marcelo Zaiat for his kind suggestions.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
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