Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 1039–1052 | Cite as

Groundwater Vulnerability Modeling to Assess Seawater Intrusion: a Methodological Comparison with Geospatial Interpolation

  • N. Momejian
  • M. Abou Najm
  • I. Alameddine
  • M. El-FadelEmail author
Article
  • 133 Downloads

Abstract

Seawater intrusion has become a growing threat in coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater. This study examines the accuracy of the commonly used geospatial quality assessment models (GQA) and groundwater vulnerability assessment models (GVA) in determining the extent of seawater intrusion in urban coastal aquifers. For that purpose, interpolation methods (kriging, IDW and co-kriging) and vulnerability assessment models (DRASTIC, EPIK) were compared using groundwater salinity criteria (TDS, Cl) collected at three pilot areas along the eastern Mediterranean (Beirut, Tripoli, Jal el Dib). The results showed that while the GIS-based interpolation methods and the vulnerability assessment models captured elements of the groundwater quality deterioration, both had a limited ability to accurately delineate saltwater intrusion. This emphasizes that while interpolation methods and conventional vulnerability models may give general information about groundwater quality, they fail to capture the status of the aquifer at a finer spatial resolution.

Keywords

Groundwater vulnerability Seawater intrusion DRASTIC EPIK Kriging Co-kriging IDW Geospatial interpolation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is part of a program on climate change and seawater intrusion along the Eastern Mediterranean funded by the International Development Research Center (IDRC) of Canada at the American University of Beirut Grant No. 106706-001. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Charlotte Macalister at IDRC for her support and feedback in implementing this program.

Supplementary material

11269_2018_2165_MOESM1_ESM.docx (102 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 102 kb)

References

  1. Abdul Basit S (1971) Ground water quality in Beirut and suburbs. ME thesis, Department of Geology. American University of Beirut, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  2. Aller L, Lehr JH, Petty R (1987) DRASTIC: a standardized system to evaluate ground water pollution potential using Hydrogeologic settings. National Water Well Association, WorthingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. APHA/AWWA/WEF (2012) Standard Methods of Water and Wastewater. 22nd edition. American Public Health AssociationGoogle Scholar
  4. Arslan H (2012) Spatial and temporal mapping of groundwater salinity using ordinary kriging and indicator kriging: the case of Bafra plain, Turkey. Agric Water Manag 113:57–63Google Scholar
  5. Awad MM, Darwich T (2009) Evaluating sea water quality in the coastal zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2D. Lebanese Sci J 10(1):35–43Google Scholar
  6. Babiker IS, Mohamed MAA, Hiyama T (2006). Assessing groundwater quality using GIS. Water Resour Manag 21(4):699–715Google Scholar
  7. Brian O (2012) Water Quality-your private well: what do the results mean. Wilkes UniversityGoogle Scholar
  8. Central Administration of Statistics (2009) Population characteristics in 2009 – Final Report. UNICEFGoogle Scholar
  9. Charizopoulos N, Zagana E, Psilovikos A (2018) Assessment of natural and anthropogenic impacts in groundwater, utilizing multivariate statistical analysis and inverse distance weighted interpolation modeling: the case of a Scopia basin (Central Greece). Environ Earth Sci 77(10):380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Costello M (2008) Salt Water Definition Review (Draft RWF Task Group). National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standards, Water Quality AssosiationGoogle Scholar
  11. Delbari M, Motlagh MB, Kiani M, Amiri M (2013) Investigating spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters using geostatistics and GIS. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 4(10):3623–3632Google Scholar
  12. Edgell HS (1997) Karst and hydrogeology of Lebanon. Carbonates Evaporites 12(2):220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Fadel M, Tomaszkiewicz M, Adra Y, Sadek S, Abou Najm M (2014) GIS-based assessment for the development of a groundwater quality index towards sustainable aquifer management. Water Resour Manag 28(11):3471–3487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elumalai V, Brindha K, Sithole B, Lakshmanan E (2017) Spatial interpolation methods and geostatistics for mapping groundwater contamination in a coastal area. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(12):11601–11617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fijani E, Nadiri AA, Asghari Moghaddam A, Tsai FTC, Dixon B (2013) Optimization of DRASTIC method by supervised committee machine artificial intelligence to assess groundwater vulnerability for Maragheh–Bonab plain aquifer, Iran. J Hydrol 503:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamdan I, Margane A, Ptak T, Wiegand B, Sauter M (2016) Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the karst aquifer of Tanour and Rasoun springs catchment area (NW-Jordan) using COP and EPIK intrinsic methods. Environ Earth Sci 75(23):1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karami S, Madani H, Katibeh H, Marj AF (2018) Assessment and modeling of the groundwater hydrogeochemical quality parameters via geostatistical approaches. Appl Water Sci 8(1):23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kouhanestani ZK, Dehdari S, Taatpour F (2017) Evaluation of spatial interpolation methods for some groundwater qualitative parameters of Najafabad plain, Isfahan. Model Earth Syst Environ 3(4):1441–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar P, Bansod BKS, Debnath SK, Thakur PK, Ghanshyam C (2015) Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: a critical evaluation. Environ Impact Assess Rev 51:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McLeod L, Bharadwaj L, Epp T, Waldner CL (2017) Use of principal components analysis and kriging to predict groundwater-sourced rural drinking water quality in Saskatchewan. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(9):1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meteorological Center (1977). Atlas Climatique Du Liban (V 1A). Beirut, Directorate general of the civil aviationGoogle Scholar
  22. Metni M, El-Fadel M, Sadek S, Kayal R, El-Khoury DL (2004) Groundwater resources in Lebanon: a vulnerability assessment. Water Resour Manag 20(4):475–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Michalopoulos D, Dimitriou E (2018) Assessment of pollution risk mapping methods in an eastern Mediterranean catchment. J Ecol Eng 19(1)Google Scholar
  24. Momejian N (2014) Methodologies of Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Quality: Comparison of Methods under Urbanization Stress. MS Thesis. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  25. Moujabber ME, Samra BB, Darwish T, Atallah T (2006) Comparison of different indicators for groundwater contamination by seawater intrusion on the Lebanese coast. Water Resour Manag 20(2):161–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nas B, Berktay A (2010) Groundwater quality mapping in urban groundwater using GIS. [research support, non-U.S. Gov't]. Environ Monit Assess 160(1-4):215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pande CB, Moharir K (2018) Spatial analysis of groundwater quality mapping in hard rock area in the Akola and Buldhana districts of Maharashtra, India. Appl Water Sci 8(4):106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SAEFL (Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape) (1998) Practical Guide: Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping in Karstic Regions (EPIK). Application to Groundwater Protection ZonesGoogle Scholar
  29. Sajil Kumar PJ, Jeghathambal P, James EJ (2011) Multivariate and geostatistical analysis of groundwater quality in Palar River basin. Int J Geol 5(4):108–119Google Scholar
  30. Selmi A (2013) Water management and modeling of a coastal aquifer case study (Gaza strip). PhD dissertation., Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Natural Sciences, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  31. Selvam S, Venkatramanan S, Sivasubramanian P, Chung SY, Singaraja C (2017) Geochemical characteristics and evaluation of minor and trace elements pollution in groundwater of Tuticorin city, Tamil Nadu, India using geospatial techniques. J Geol Soc India 90(1):62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Juahir H, Fakharian K (2014) Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using classic integrated geochemical methods and geostatistical techniques, in Amol-Babol plain, Iran. Sci World J:419058.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/419058
  33. Tomaszkiewicz M, Abou Najm M, El-Fadel M (2014) Development of a groundwater quality index for seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Environ Model Softw 57:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. USGS (2000) Is Seawater Intrusion Affecting Ground Water on Lopez Island, Washington? USGS Fact Sheet. 057-00, Department of the Interior; U.S. Geological Survey. Tacoma, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Voudouris K, Mandilaras D, Antonakos A (2004) Methods to define the areal distribution of the salt intrusion: examples from South Greece. In: Paper presented at the 18th SWIM. Cartagena, SpainGoogle Scholar
  36. Walley C (1997) The Lithostratigraphy of Lebanon. Lebanese Sci Bull 10(1)Google Scholar
  37. Werner AD, Ward JD, Morgan LK, Simmons CT, Robinson NI, Teubner MD (2012) Vulnerability indicators of sea water intrusion. Ground Water 50(1):48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. WHO (2003) Chloride in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Heatlh Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Now at the Department of Geography and PlanningQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  3. 3.Now at the Department of Land, Air, and Water ResourcesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations