Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 4103–4122 | Cite as

Improving Consumer Satisfaction in Water Distribution Networks Through Optimal Use of Auxiliary Tanks (A Case Study of Kashan City, Iran)

  • Milad LatifiEmail author
  • Mohammad Amin Gheibi
  • Seyed Taghi (Omid) Naeeni


Temporal and spatial variations in pressure may lead to consumer dissatisfaction and distrust of water distribution networks when it comes to reliable performance. Pressure management is a set of programs and operations conducted in water distribution networks to adjust the pressure. Constructing new auxiliary tanks in proper locations at the best height for the area they serve minimizes the pressure fluctuations. Additionally, chlorine is often injected in the reservoirs and tanks to improve the water quality. The goal of this research was to improve the condition of the network by adding auxiliary tanks with appropriate locations, heights and chlorine concentration. An optimization model is prepared to optimize consumer satisfaction, water quality and the relevant costs as objective functions. The performance of the models are evaluated by a selected case study; and the objectives are optimized in three scenarios. Using the proposed model in a water distribution network, a trade-off diagram of reliability and costs is obtained, that lets the decision makers select the proper options considering the available fund. A new indicator, the consumer satisfaction index, is also proposed as a way to evaluate the performance of water distribution networks.


Auxiliary tanks Consumers’ satisfaction index Optimization Reliability Water distribution network 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Water EngineeringShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

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