Advertisement

Associations of Migrants in Spain: An Enquiry into Their Digital Inclusion in the “Network Society” in the 2010s

  • Catalina UzcangaEmail author
  • Pedro J. Oiarzabal
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper explores the way that associations of migrants in Spain (AMS) in the 2010 decade integrate into the Network Society by analyzing how they use information and communication technologies (ICTs), while looking at the potential implications of those technologies for fostering their social capital. To what extent are AMS using ICTs? To what degree is the use of those technologies improving their social capital? Original research of eighty-five associations of the largest migrant communities in Spain, i.e., Romanian, Moroccan, Ecuadorian, Colombian and Bolivian, in twenty-three municipalities in five Spanish regions, is presented here. The analysis focuses on the factors that influence the use of ICTs by AMS, such as the representatives’ technological skills, and on the relation that this use may have on their social capital, such as the construction of collaborative digital ecosystems that may positively enhance their ties with the host society.

Keywords

Network Society Associations of migrants Information and communication technologies Social capital Immigration in Spain 

Résumé

Cet article étudie comment les associations de personnes migrantes s’intègrent dans la société en réseau en analysant leur utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) et en observant les implications potentielles de ces technologies dans la création de capital social. Comment les associations de personnes immigrées utilisent les TIC? Est-ce que ces technologies facilitent le développement de leur capital social? Nous présentons les résultats d’une investigation originale de quatre-vingt-cinq associations des origines les plus nombreuses en Espagne (Roumanie, Maroc, Equateur, Colombie et Bolivie) basées dans vingt-trois municipalités dans cinq régions espagnoles. L’analyse se concentre dans les facteurs qu’influencent l’utilisation des TIC dans ces organisations, tel que les compétences en technologie des représentants, et dans l’impact que cela peut avoir dans leur capital social, tel que la construction d’écosystèmes digitaux de collaborations que puissent rehausser leurs liens avec la société hôte.

Resumen

El presente artículo estudia el modo en que las asociaciones de personas inmigradas se integran en la sociedad red analizando el uso que hacen de las Tecnologías de la Información y de la Comunicación (TIC) y observando las potenciales implicaciones de estas tecnologías en su capital social. ¿Cómo utilizan las asociaciones de personas inmigradas las TIC? ¿Estas tecnologías facilitan el desarrollo de capital social? Presentamos aquí los resultados de una investigación original de ochenta y cinco asociaciones de los orígenes más numerosos en España (Rumanía, Marruecos, Ecuador, Colombia y Bolivia) situadas en veintitrés municipios de cinco comunidades autónomas españolas. El análisis se concentra en los factores que influyen en el uso de las TIC en estas organizaciones, como las competencias en tecnología de los representantes, y en el impacto que ello puede tener en su capital social, como la construcción de ecosistemas digitales de colaboración que puedan realzar las relaciones con la sociedad de acogida.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present paper is part of a larger research project titled “Integration and participation of migrant associations in the Information Society: Impact of Information and Communication Technologies, social inclusion and social integration of main migrant associations in Spain (AsITIC),” supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Ref. CSO2012-31999). The authors would like to thank Dr. Sònia Pereira, University of Lisbon, and Robert C. Smith, CUNY, for previous revisions of the paper.

Funding

This study was supported by “Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación” (Grant Number CSO2012-31999).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Allievi, S., & Nielsen, J. S. (2003). Muslim networks and transnational communities in and across Europe. Leiden and Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  2. Álvarez de los Mozos, F. J. (2013). Capital social de las asociaciones de inmigrantes: Asociaciones bolivianas, colombianas, ecuatorianas y peruanas en Barcelona. Bilbao: Bilbao, Madrid y Valencia, Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto.Google Scholar
  3. Aparicio, R., & Tornos, A. (2010). Las asociaciones de inmigrantes en España. Una visión de conjunto. Madrid: Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigración del Ministerio del Trabajo e Inmigración.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, D. (1976). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloch-Lainé, F. (1977). Entre l’Administration et le marché: les associations gestionnaires. Revue d’économie politique, 87(4), 548–564.Google Scholar
  6. Blokland, T. (2008). Gardening with a little help from your (middle class) friends: Bridging social capital across race and class in a mixed neighborhood. In T. Blokland & M. Savage (Eds.), Networked urbanism: Social capital in the city. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  7. Blokland, T. (2017). The public life of social capital. In S. Hall & R. Burdett (Eds.), The Sage handbook of the 21st century city. Beverly Hills: SAGE.Google Scholar
  8. Borkert, M., Cingolani, P., & Premazzi, V. (2009). The state of the art of research in the E.U. on the uptake and use of ICT by immigrants and ethnic minorities. Sevilla: Joint Research Centre. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS).Google Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le capital social: Notes provisoires. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 31, 2–3.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (2011). The forms of capital (1986). In I. Szeman & T. Kaposy (Eds.), Cultural theory: An anthology. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  11. Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cammaerts, B. (2005). ICT-usage among transnational social movements in the networked society-to organize, to mobilise and to debate. In R. Silverstone (Ed.), Media, technology and everyday life in Europe: From information to communication. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  13. Castells, M. (1996). The information age. Economy, society and culture (Vol. 1)., The rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Castells, M., Tubella, I., & Sancho, T. (2007). La transición a la sociedad red. Barcelona: Ariel.Google Scholar
  15. Cattacin, S. (2014). Transnational mobility and associative life. In M. Freise & T. Hallmann (Eds.), Modernizing democracy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Cebolla-Boado, H., & López-Sala, A. (2015). Transnational immigrant organizations in Spain: Their role in development and integration. In A. Portes & P. Fernandez-Kelly (Eds.), The state and the grassroots: Immigrant transnational organizations in four continents. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  17. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Souza Briggs, X. (1997). Social capital and the cities: Advice to change agents. National Civic Review, 86(2), 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diminescu, D. (2002). Les migrations à l’âge des nouvelles technologies. Hommes et Migrations, 1240, 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diminescu, D., Hepp, A., Welling, S., Maya-Jariego, I., & Yates, S. (2009). ICT supply and demand in immigrant and ethnic minority communities in France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  21. Drucker, P. (1998). From capitalism to knowledge society. In D. Need (Ed.), The knowledge economy. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  22. Eimhjellen, I., Wollebæk, D., & Strømsnes, K. (2014). Associations online: Barriers for using web-based communication in voluntary associations. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25(3), 730–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network site. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eurostat. (2015). Digital agenda scoreboard key indicators. Analyse one indicator and compare countries. Broadband speeds and prices. Affordability of fixed internet access. Retrieved September 9, 2019 from http://digital-agenda-data.eu/datasets/digital_agenda_scoreboard_key_indicators/visualizations.
  25. Fennema, M. (2004). The concept and measurement of ethnic community. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(3), 429–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gareis, K., Hüsing, T., & Richardson, R. (2008). Does ICT use enhance social capital? Some evidence from a survey in twelve EU regions. In P. Cunningham & M. Cunningham (Eds.), Collaboration and the knowledge economy: Issues, applications, case studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  27. González-Ferrer, A., & Morales, L. (2006). Las asociaciones de inmigrantes en Madrid: Una nota de investigación sobre su grado de integración política. Revista Española del Tercer Sector, 4, 129–174.Google Scholar
  28. Hamidi, C. (2003). Voluntary associations of migrants and politics: The case of North African immigrants in France. Immigrants and Minorities, 22(2–3), 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haythornthwaite, C. (2007). Social networks and online community. In A. N. Joinson, K. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of internet psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística). (2016). Advance of the municipal register at 1st January 2016. Provisional results. Population by nationality and country of birth and sex. Retrieved September 9, 2019 from https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177012&menu=resultados&secc=1254736195462&idp=1254734710990.
  31. ITU (International Telecommunication Union). (2015). Percentage of Individuals using the internet, by Country, 2000–2013. Time Series by Country.Google Scholar
  32. Kastoryano, R. (1984). Mobilisations des migrants en Europe: du national au transnational. Revue européenne des migrations internationales, 10(1), 169–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kriesi, H. (2007). Organizational resources: Personnel and finances. In W. A. Maloney & S. Rossteutscher (Eds.), Social capital and associations in European democracies: A comparative analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Levitt, P., & Schiller, N. G. (2004). Conceptualizing simultaneity: A transnational social field perspective on society. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1002–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maloney, W. A., & Rossteutscher, S. (2007). Social capital and associations in European democracies: A comparative analysis. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marchandise, S. (2015). Le Facebook des étudiants marocains. Territoire relationnel et territoire des possibles. Revue européenne des migrations internationales, 30(3), 31–48.Google Scholar
  37. Martín Pérez, A. (2004). Las asociaciones de inmigrantes en el debate sobre las nuevas formas de participación política y ciudadanía: Reflexiones sobre algunas experiencias en España. Revista Migraciones, 15, 113–143.Google Scholar
  38. Morales, L., & Jorba, L. (2010). Transnational links and practices of migrants’ organizations in Spain. In R. Bauböck & T. Faist (Eds.), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Moya, J. C. (2005). Immigrants and associations: A global and historical perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(5), 833–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nedelcu, M. (2009). Le migrant online: Nouveaux modèles migratoires à l’ère du numérique. Paris: Editions L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  41. Nedelcu, M. (2012). Migrants’ new transnational habitus: Rethinking migration through a cosmopolitan lens in the digital age. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38, 1339–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Odmalm, P. (2004). Civil society, migrant organizations and political parties: Theoretical linkages and applications to the Swedish context. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(3), 471–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oiarzabal, P. J. (2012). Diaspora Basques and online social networks: An analysis of users of Basque institutional diaspora groups on Facebook. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(9), 1469–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oiarzabal, P. J. (2013). The Basque diaspora webscape. Identity, nation and homeland, 1990s–2010s. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada.Google Scholar
  45. Ponzanesi, S., & Leurs, K. (2014). On digital crossings in Europe. Crossings: Journal of Migration y Culture, 5(1), 3–22.Google Scholar
  46. Porat, M. U. (1977). The information economy: Definition and measurement. Report Office of Telecommunications Special Publication 77–12 (1), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. Retrieved September 9, 2019 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED142205.
  47. Portes, A., & Böröcz, J. (1989). Contemporary immigration: Theoretical perspectives on its determinants and modes of incorporation. International Migration Review, 23(3), 606–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  49. Ros, A., González, E., Marín, A., & Sow, P. (2007). Migration and information flows. A new lens for the study of contemporary international migration. IN3 Working Paper Series, (7).Google Scholar
  50. Stehr, N. (2000). Deciphering information technologies modern societies as network. European Journal of Social Theory, 3(1), 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Toral, G. (2010). Las asociaciones de inmigrantes como sociedad civil: Un análisis tridimensional. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 132(1), 105–130.Google Scholar
  52. UN (United Nations). (2013). Trends in international migrant stock: The 2013 revision.Google Scholar
  53. Uzcanga, C. (2016). Las asociaciones de personas inmigradas a España en la sociedad red: Un estudio exploratorio sobre el uso de las TIC para el desarrollo de su capital social. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Deusto, Bilbao.Google Scholar
  54. Van Dijk, J. (2012). The Network Society. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Vancea, M., & Boso, À. (2014). Connected migrants? Four methodological challenges for the analysis of ICT use through survey data. Migraciones Internacionales, 7(3), 43–72.Google Scholar
  56. Vermeulen, F. (2005). Organisational patterns: Surinamese and Turkish associations in Amsterdam, 1960–1990. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(5), 951–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vertovec, S. (1999). Minority associations, networks and public policies: Re-assessing relationships. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25(1), 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vidal, P., Valls, N., Fernández, C., Albinyana, M., Torrent, A., Carod, N., et al. (2006). Directorio de entidades de personas inmigradas en España. Obra Social, Barcelona: Fundación La Caixa.Google Scholar
  59. Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and social inclusion. Rethinking the digital divide: MIT press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  60. Webster, F. (2007). Theories of the information society. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wellman, B., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 436–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams, D. (2006). On and off the net: Scales for social capital in an online era. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(2), 593–628.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00029.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), 225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zmerli, S., & Newton, R. (2007). Networking among voluntary associations: Segmented or integrated? In W. A. Maloney & S. Roßteutscher (Eds.), Social capital and associations in European democracies: A comparative analysis. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Human Rights InstituteUniversity of DeustoBilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations