Virus Genes

pp 1–9 | Cite as

Genetic differences between Korean and American isolates of Petunia vein clearing virus

  • Yae Eun Kwon
  • Eun Gyeong Song
  • Sun Hee Choi
  • Ki Hyun RyuEmail author
Original Paper


Petunia plants are used for urban landscaping in many parts of the world, including South Korea. In this study, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV) infection in petunia plants in Seoul, South Korea. PVCV was detected from 23 of 79 petunia samples collected from Seoul. We obtained the complete genome sequences of the Korean isolates in this study (called PVCV-Kr, Kr2, and Kr3), which were compared with the genome sequence of the USA isolate of the virus (PVCV-USA). The genomic DNA of the three PVCV isolates was found to comprise 7210–7267 nucleotides (nts), which is 4–15 nts longer than the PVCV-USA genome. The genomes of the Kr and Kr2 isolates encode a large polyprotein of 252 kDa (2180 amino acids (aa)). The genome of the Kr3 isolate encodes a large polyprotein of 255 kDa (2203 aa). The polyprotein has six protein domains: a movement protein (MP; 72 aa), a coiled-coil domain (CC; 33 aa), an RNA-binding domain (RB; 18 aa), a protease (PR; 21 aa), a reverse transcriptase (RT; 196 aa), and an RNase H (RH; 121 aa). The large polyprotein and six domains of the three isolates showed 93.9–100.0% sequence homology with those of PVCV-USA. Furthermore, the polymerase polyprotein gene (PR, RT, and RH) of the four PVCV isolates containing the USA isolate grouped with those of Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Soybean chlorotic mottle virus, which belong to the same family (Caulimoviridae). Our findings suggested that the Korean isolates represent a new isolate of PVCV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PVCV detection in South Korea.


Petunia vein clearing virus Petunia Petuvirus Caulimoviridae Genome 



This study was supported by Grants (2014M3A9B8022821, 2018R1D1A1B07045964, and 2019R1C1C1006312) from the National Research Foundation in Korea.

Author contributions

EGS and KHR conceived and designed the study. YEK and EGS collected the samples. YEK carried out the experiments. EGS and KHR performed the data analysis. EGS and KHR drafted the manuscript. YEK and EGS contributed equally to this study and should be considered co-first authors.


This study was funded by Grants (2014M3A9B8022821, 2018R1D1A1B07045964, and 2019R1C1C1006312) from the National Research Foundation in Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human and animal participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any information of human participants.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Virus GenBank, Department of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape ArchitectureSeoul Women’s UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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