Virus Genes

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Isolation and molecular characterization of a variant of Chinese gC-genotype II pseudorabies virus from a hunting dog infected by biting a wild boar in Japan and its pathogenicity in a mouse model

  • Kohei Minamiguchi
  • Seiji Kojima
  • Kana Sakumoto
  • Rikio KirisawaEmail author


We isolated a variant of Chinese pseudorabies virus from a hunting dog with symptoms similar to Aujeszky’s disease and designated the isolate MY-1 strain. The dog developed symptoms 6 days after hunting and biting a wild boar and died the day after onset. The Bam HI restriction profile of MY-1 DNA was different from those of the Japanese reference strain Yamagata-S81 and two vaccine strains, Bartha and Begonia, and resembled Bam HI-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) type IV. Complete nucleotide sequences were determined, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MY-1 belonged to the same cluster of old Chinese strains and variant strains isolated recently in China, but most of the open reading frames of MY-1 were located on a different branch from those of these Chinese strains. Based on a gC phylogenetic analysis, MY-1 belonged to gC-genotype II composed of those Chinese strains. In mice, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of MY-1 (103.0 TCID50) was almost the same as those of Yamagata-S81 and Bartha. The LD50 value of Begonia was 10≥4.5 TCID50. The mean survival periods of mice after infection with 104 TCID50 of MY-1, Yamagata-S81 and Bartha were 3.9 days, 2.3 days, and 8.0 days, respectively. The results suggested that the variant of Chinese PRV with slightly weaker pathogenicity than that of wild virulent viruses might be maintained in wild boars in Japan. Furthermore, we would like to propose that old Chinese strains, recent Chinese variant strains, and MY-1 should be grouped as an Asian type PRV.


Aujeszky’s disease Pseudorabies virus Phylogenetic analysis Wild boar Hunting dog 


Author contributions

RK performed a virus isolation. KM and RK performed sequences. SK provided samples. KS conducted animal experiments. KM and RK wrote the manuscript. RK finalized the draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All animal experiments were conducted according to the Guidelines for the Proper Conduct of Animal Experiments of the Science Council of Japan. All procedures involving animals and their care were approved by the Animal Care Committee of Rakuno Gakuen University. The animal ethics approved number was VH16A4.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45583 kb)
11262_2019_1659_MOESM2_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 29 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Veterinary Virology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary MedicineRakuno Gakuen UniversityEbetsuJapan
  2. 2.PathoVets Animal HospitalKawaminami-choJapan

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