Virus Genes

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 12–21 | Cite as

Soybean vein necrosis virus: an emerging virus in North America

  • Jing Zhou
  • Ioannis E. TzanetakisEmail author


Few diseases have emerged in such a short period of time as soybean vein necrosis. The disease is present in all major producing areas in North America, affecting one of the major row field instead of row crops for the United States. Because of the significance of soybean in the agricultural economy and the widespread presence of the disease, the causal agent, soybean vein necrosis virus has been studied by several research groups. Research in the past 10 years has focused on virus epidemiology, management, and effects on yield and seed quality. This communication provides a review of the current knowledge on the virus and the disease.


Orthotospovirus Soybean Neohydatothrips variabilis 



The studies in the Tzanetakis laboratory were supported by grants from the Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board, the United Soybean Board and the National Science Foundation–Arkansas ASSET Initiatives II (Grant No. EPS-1003970), and NIFA Hatch project Grant No. 1002361.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human or animal participants

This article does not contain any research involving human or animal participants.


  1. 1.
    Zhou J, Kantartzi SK, Wen RH, Newman M, Hajimorad MR, Rupe JC, Tzanetakis IE (2011) Molecular characterization of a new tospovirus infecting soybean. Virus Genes 43:289–295Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou J, Tzanetakis IE (2013) Epidemiology of Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus. Phytopathology 103:966–971Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tzanetakis IE, Wen RH, Newman M (2009) Soybean vein necrosis virus: a new threat to soybean production in Southeastern United States? Phytopathology 99:131Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ali A, Abdalla OA (2013) First report of Soybean vein necrosis virus in soybean fields of Oklahoma. Plant Dis 97:1664Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conner K, Sikora EJ, Zhang L, Burmester C (2013) First report of soybean vein necrosis-associated virus affecting soybeans in Alabama. Plant Health Prog. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Escalante C, Bollich P, Valverde R (2018) Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus naturally infecting yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and soybean in Louisiana. Plant Dis. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han J, Domier LL, Dorrance AE, Qu F (2013) First report of Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Ohio soybean fields. Plant Dis 97:693Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jacobs JL, Chilvers MI (2013) First report of Soybean vein necrosis virus on soybeans in Michigan. Plant Dis 97:1387Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kleczewski N (2016) Research updates on soybean vein necrosis virus. Accessed 7 Sept 2018
  10. 10.
    Smith DL, Fritz C, Watson Q, Willis DK, German TL, Phibbs A, Mueller D, Dittman JD, Saalau-Rojas E, Whitham SA (2013) First report of Soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa. Plant Dis 97:693Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou J (2012) Characterization and epidemiology of Soybean vein necrosis associated virus. Thesis, University of ArkansasGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abd El-Wahab AS, El-Shazly MA (2017) Identification and characterization of soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV): a newly isolated thrips-borne tospovirus in Egypt. J Virol Sci 1:76–90Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Whitfield AE, Ullman DE, German TL (2005) Tospovirus-thrips interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:459–489Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bag S, Schwartz HF, Cramer CS, Havey MJ, Pappu HR (2015) Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae): from obscurity to research priority. Mol Plant Pathol 16:224–237Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sherwood JL, German TL, Moyer JW, Ullman DE, Whitfield AE (2000) Tomato spotted wilt. In: Maloy OC, Murray TD (eds) Encyclopedia of plant pathology. Wiley, New York, pp 1034–1040Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts A, Rossier C, Kolakofsky D, Nathanson N, Franscisco GS (1995) Completion of the La crosse virus genome sequence and genetic comparisons of the L proteins of the Bunyaviridae. Virology 206:742–745Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruenn JA (2003) A structural and primary sequence comparions of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Nucleic Acids Res 31:1821–1829Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Oliveira AS, Bertran AGM, Inoue-Nagata AK, Nagata T, Kitajima EW, Oliveira Resende R (2011) An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of a distinct Brazilian tospoviurs. Virus Genes 43:385–389Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mushegian AR, Koonin EV (1993) Cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses. Arch Virol 133:239–257Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Melcher U (2000) The “30 K” superfamily of viral movement proteins. J Gen Virol 80:257–266Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silva MS, Maertins CRF, Bezerra IC, Nagata T, De Ávila AC, Resende RO (2001) Sequence diversity of NSm movement of protein of tospoviruses. Arch Virol 146:1267–1281Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kormelink R, De Haan P, Meurs C, Peters D, Goldbach R (1992) The nucleotide sequence of the M RNA segment of tomato spotted wilt virus, a bunyavirus with two ambisense RNA segments. J Gen Virol 73:2795–2804Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cortez I, Aires A, Pereira AM, Goldbach R, Peters D, Kormelink R (2002) Genetic organization of Iris yellow spot virus M RNA: indications for functional homology between the G(C)glycoproteins of tospoviruses and animal-infecting bunyaviruses. Arch Virol 147:2313–2325Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Takeda A, Sugiyama K, Nagano H, Mori M, Kaido M, Mise K, Tsuda S, Okumo T (2002) Identification of a novel RNA silencing suppressor, NSs protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus. FEBS Lett 532:75–79Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caruthers JM, McKay DB (2002) Helicase structure and mechanism. Curr Opin Struct Biol 12:123–133Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lokesh B, Rashmi PR, Amruta BS, Srisathiyanarayanan D, Murthy MRN, Savithri HS (2010) NSs encoded by groundnut bud necrosis virus is a bifunctional enzyme. PLoS ONE 5:e9757Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dunn EF, Pritlove DC, Jin H, Elliott RM (1995) Transcription of a recombinant bunyavirus RNA template by transiently expressed bunyavirus proteins. Virology 211:133–143Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Flick R, Pettersson RF (2001) Reverse genetics system for Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae): RNA polymerase I-catalyzed expression of chimeric viral RNAs. J Virol 75:1643–1655Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flick K, Hooper JW, Schmaljohn CS, Pettersson RF, Feldmann H, Flick R (2003) Rescue of Hantaan virus minigenomes. Virology 306:219–224Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kainz M, Hilson P, Sweeney L, DeRose E, German TL (2004) Interaction between Tomato spotted wilt virus N protein monomers involves nonelectrostatic forces governed by multiple distinct regions in the primary structure. Phytopathology 94:759–765Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kukkonen SKJ, Vaheri A, Plyusnin A (2005) L protein, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of hantaviruses. Arch Virol 150:533–556Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Oliveira AS, Melo FL, Inoue-Nagata AK, Nagata T, Kitajima EW, Resende RO (2012) Characterization of bean necrotic mosaic virus: a member of a novel evolutionary lineage within the Genus Tospovirus. PLoS ONE 7:e38634Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen TC, Li JT, Fan YS, Yeh YC, Yeh SD, Kormelink R (2013) Molecular characterization of the full-length L and M RNAs of Tomato yellow ring virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus. Virus Genes 46:487–495Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huang KS, Tai CH, Cheng YH, Lin SH, Chen TC, Jan FJ (2017) Complete nucleotide sequences of M and L RNAs from a new pepper-infecting tosppovirus, pepper chlorotic spot virus. Arch Virol 162:2109–2113Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson NR (2017) Effect of soybean vein necrosis on soybean yield and seed quality, and symptom expression on soybean and alternative hosts. Thesis, Purdue UniversityGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hajimorad MR, Halter MC, Wang Y, Staton ME, Hershman DE (2015) Evaluation of seed transmissibility of Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in two soybean cultivars grown under field conditions. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 6:278–283Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chitturi A, Conner K, Sikora EJ, Jacobson AL (2018) Monitoring seasonal distribution of thrips vectors of soybean vein necrosis virus in Alabama soybeans. J Econ Entomol. Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Keough S, Danielson J, Marshall JM, Lagos-Kutz D, Voegtlin DJ, Srinivasan R, Nachappa P (2018) Factors affecting population dynamics of thrips vectors of soybean vein necrosis virus. Environ Entomol 47:734–740Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhou J (2018) Soybean vein necrosis virus: expansion of plant host range, screening for tolerance to virus vector, peptides-mediated vector transmission efficiency and mixed infections with other prevalent soybean viruses. PhD Dissertation, University of ArkansasGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sikora EJ, Conner KN, Jacobson AL (2018) Incidence of soybean vein necrosis virus in Alabama soybean field. Plant Health Prog 19:76–81Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhou J, Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N, Sabanadzovic S, Tzanetakis IE (2018) First report of soybean vein necrosis virus infecting kudzu (Pueraria montana) in the United States of America. Plant Dis 102:1674Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Khatabi B, Wen RH, Hershman DE, Kennedy BS, Newman MA, Hajimorad MR (2012) Generation of polyclonal antibodies and serological analyses of nucleocapsid protein of soybean vein necrosis associated virus: a distinct soybean infecting tospovirus serotype. Eur J Plant Pathol 133:783–790Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lrizarry MD, Elmore MG, Batzer JC, Whitham SA, Mueller DS (2018) Alternative hosts for soybean vein necrosis virus and feeding perferences of its vector soybean thrips. Plant Health Prog 19:176–181Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lrizarry M (2016) Soybean vein necrosis virus: impacts of infection on yield loss and seed quality and expansion of plant host range. Thesis, Iowa State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keough S, Han J, Shuman T, Wise K, Nachappa P (2016) Effects of soybean vein necrosis virus on life history and host preference of its vector, neohydatothrips variabilis, and evaluation of vector status of Frankliniella tritici and Frankliniella fusca. J Econ Entomol 109:1979–1987Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Riley DG, Joseph SV, Srinivasan R, Stanley D (2011) Thrips vectors of tospoviruses. J Integr Pest Manag 1:1–10Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xu Y, Gao X, Jia Z, Li W, Hu J, Li Y, Li Y, Liu Y (2017) Identification of Taeniothrips eucharii (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a Vector of Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus in Southern China. Plant Dis 101:1597–1600Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ciuffo M, Mautino GC, Bosco L, Turina M, Tavella L (2010) Identification of dictyothrips betae as the vector of polygonum ring spot virus. Ann Appl Biol 157:299–307Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mink GI (1993) Pollen and seed-transmitted viruses and viroids. Annu Rev Phytopathol 31:375–402Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johansen IE, Edwards MC, Hampton RO (1994) Seed transmission of viruses—current perspectives. Annu Rev Phytopathol 32:363–386Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hull R (2014) Plant virology, 5th edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Groves C, German T, Dasgupta R, Mueller D, Smith DL (2016) Seed transmission of soybean vein necrosis virus: the first tospovirus implicated in seed transmission. PLoS ONE 11:e0147342Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pappu HR, Jones RA, Jain RK (2009) Global status of tospovirus epidemics in diverse cropping systems: successes achieved and challenges ahead. Virus Res 141:219–236Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Oliver JE, Whitfield AE (2016) The genus tospovirs: emerging bunyaviruses the threaten food security. Annu Rev Virol 29:101–124Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bloomingdale C, Lrizarry MD, Groves RL, Mueller DS, Smith DL (2017) Seasonal population dynamics of thrips (Thysanoptera) in Wisconsin and Iowa soybean fields. J Econ Entomol 110:133–141Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kleczewski N (2018) Prevalence and cropping systems impacts on soybean vein necrosis disease in Delaware soybeans. Plant Health Prog 19:11–12Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Inoue T, Sakurai T (2007) The phylogeny of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) based on partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase I, 28S ribosomal DNA and elongation factor-1 α and the association with vector competence of tospoviruses. Appl Entomol Zool 42:71–81Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Anderson NR, Lrizarry MD, Bloomingdale CA, Smith DL, Bradley CA, Delaney DP, Kleczewski NM, Sikora EJ, Mueller DS, Wise KA (2017) Effect of soybean vein necrosis on yield and seed quality of soybean. Can J Plant Pathol 39:334–341Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sastry KS (2013) Seed-borne plant virus disease. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hopkins JD, Mueller J (1984) Effect of bean pod mottle virus on soybean yield. J Econ Entomol 77:943–947Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ren Q, Pfeiffer TW, Ghabrial SA (1997) Soybean mosaic virus incidence level and infection time: interaction effects on soybean. Crop Sci 37:1706–1711Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Maestri DM, Guzman GA, Giorda LM, Labuckas DO (1998) Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes. Grasas Aceites 49:450–453Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Filho MM, Destro D, Miranda LA, Spinosa WA, Carrao-Panizzi MC, Montalvan R (2001) Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans. Braz Arch Biol Tech 44:23–32Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Byamukama E, Robertson AE, Nutter FW Jr (2015) Bean pod mottle virus time of infection influences soybean yield, yield components, and quality. Plant Dis 99:1026–1032Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hassani-Mehraban A, Botermans M, Verhoeven JT, Meekes E, Saaijer J, Peters D, Goldbach R, Kormelink R (2010) A distinct tospovirus causing necrotic streak on Alstroemeria sp. In Colombia. Arch Virol 155:423–428Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seepiban C, Gajanandana O, Attathom T, Attathom S (2011) Tomato necrotic ringspot virus, a new tospovirus isolated in Thailand. Arch Virol 156:263–274Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Agriculture, Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations