VARV B22R homologue as phylogenetic marker gene for Capripoxvirus classification and divergence time dating
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Sheeppox disease is associated with significant losses in sheep production world over. The sheep pox virus, the goatpox virus, and the lumpy skin disease virus cannot be distinguished by conventional serological tests. Identification of these pathogens needs molecular methods. In this study, seven genes viz. EEV maturation protein—F12L, Virion protein—D3R, RNA polymerase subunit—A5R, Virion core protein—A10L, EEV glycoprotein—A33R, VARV B22R homologue, and Kelch like protein—A55R that cover the start, middle, and end of the genome were selected. These genes were amplified from Roumanian-Fanar vaccine strain and Jaipur virulent strain, cloned, and sequenced. On analysis with the available database sequences, VARV B22R homologue was identified as a marker for phylogenetic reconstruction for classifying the sheeppox viruses of the ungulates. Further, divergence time dating with VARV B22R gene accurately predicted the sheeppox disease outbreak involving Jaipur virulent strain.
KeywordsSheeppox virus Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Phylogeny Capripoxvirus Divergence time dating
This study was supported by ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute and BioCARE, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India.
BM, GRK and RKS designed the study. BM, PM, CLP, IZ, RG, NS, DB and JS performed the laboratory work. IZ, ARS, MB, BS and GRK performed phylogenetic analysis and wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors in this paper declare they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Research involving human participants
No human subjects were involved in this study.
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