The objective of this study was to evaluate blood levels of various hormones and compounds related to energy metabolism in cows with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). We investigated 11 lactating cows presumed to have SARA based on duration of ruminal pH <5.6 and reticulum pH <6.3 in 2015–2016. Kraft pulp (KP) was used to supplement feed of 7 of the cows studied in an effort to reduce SARA. We continuously monitored ruminal pH and measured blood concentrations of hormones and metabolites related to energy metabolism. Blood measurements included glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), insulin, adiponectin (ADN), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Additionally, we analyzed milk data (milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen, and protein fat ratio) and reproduction data. The results demonstrated that ADN levels at 4 weeks post-parturition correlated with the total amount of time that the ruminal or reticulum fluid pH was under the threshold during 1 week post-parturition, as well as the numbers of days the cows were diagnosed with SARA (SARA-positive days) up to 30 days post-parturition. SARA-positive days in 2016 were higher than those in 2015. In both years, numbers of SARA-positive days for cows supplemented with KP were lower than those for cows without KP. Increased ADN levels may be a compensatory reaction to frequent SARA which modulates the inflammatory response against high LPS levels and improves insulin resistance caused by LPS. ADN may serve as an estimative index for SARA.
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We would like to express our gratitude to S farm for providing sample and data in this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals
Ethical approval: All procedures performed in this study involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the research animal ethical committee of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University and the current laws of Japan, wherein this study was conducted.
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