Advertisement

Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 37–43 | Cite as

Impacts on performance of growing-finishing pigs under heat stress conditions: a meta-analysis

  • Angela Cristina da Fonseca de OliveiraEmail author
  • Karoline Vanelli
  • Cristina Santos Sotomaior
  • Saulo Henrique Weber
  • Leandro Batista Costa
Short Communication
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

High ambient temperatures are a challenge for animal production around the world, and they are one of the major reasons for economic and productive losses in pig production. Under stress conditions, the energy contribution to productive functions is reduced, generating health imbalances, decreased productivity rates and changes in animal behavior. Despite the numerous articles published on this subject, the variability of results on performance parameters is high. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the actual impact of high ambient temperature (HAT) (29 °C to 35 °C) on growing-finishing pig performance, compared with animals kept in a thermoneutral environment (TNT) (18 °C to 25 °C), based on meta-analysis. Data on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (FI) and feed gain ratio (F:G) were extracted from 22 (n = 22) papers published in scientific journals. The values were analyzed using an expansion of the t-test, considering the random effect of each study. Results showed that HAT reduced the values of ADG (654.38 vs 595.81 g/d) and FI (2.141 vs 1.875 g/d) when compared with the thermoneutral group. There was no statistical difference between the F:G values for both groups. In conclusion, high ambient temperatures negatively influence performance parameters of growing-finishing pigs when compared with those in thermoneutral conditions.

Keywords

Animal welfare High temperatures Swine Thermoneutral conditions 

Notes

References

  1. Baumgard LH, Rhoads RP (2013) Effects of heat stress on post-absorptive metabolism and energetics. Annu Rev Anim Biosci 1:311–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker BA, Nienabar JA, Christenson RK, Manak RC, Shazer JA, Hahn GL (2014) Peripheral concentrations of cortisol as an indicator of stress in the pig. Amer J Vet Res 46:1034–1038Google Scholar
  3. Berton MP, Dourado RC, Lima FBF, Rodrigues ABR, Ferrari FB, Vieira LDC, Souza PA, Borba H (2015) Growing-finishing performance and carcass yield of pigs reared in a climate controlled and uncontrolled environment. Inter J Biom 59:955–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bracke MBM (2011) Review of wallowing in pigs: description of the behaviour and its motivational basis. Appl Anim Behav Sci 132:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campos PHRF, Merlot E, Damon M, Noblet J, Floc’h NL (2014a) High ambient temperature alleviates the inflammatory response and growth depression in pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Vet J 200:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campos PHRF, Noblet J, Peyraud YJ, Gilbert H, Mormède P, Donzele RFMO, Donzele JL, Renaudeau D (2014b) Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake. Int J Biometeorol 58:1545–1557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Collin, A (2000) Effets de la température ambiante élevée sur le métabolisme énergétique du porcelet. Thèse Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomie de Rennes. INRA-Unité mixte de recherches sur le veau et le porcGoogle Scholar
  8. Collin A, Milgen JV, Dubois S, Noblet J (2001) Effect of high temperature on feeding behaviour and heat production in group-housed young pig. Br J Nutr 86:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cottrell JJ, Liu F, Hung AT, DiGiacomo K, Chauhan SS, Leury BJ, Furness JB, Celi P, Dunshea FR (2015) Nutritional strategies to alleviate heat stress in pigs. Anim Prod Sci 55:1397–1402Google Scholar
  10. Eurobarometer (2016) Attitudes of Europeans towards animal welfare. Special Eurobarometer Report 442. Brussels: Eurobarometer.Google Scholar
  11. Fernandez MVS, Stoakes SK, Abuajamieh M, Seibert JT, Johnson JS, Horst EA, Rhoads RP, Baumgard LH (2015) Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs. Phys Rep 3:1–12Google Scholar
  12. Fraser D (2008) Toward a global perspective on farm animal welfare. Appl Anim Behav Sci 113(4):330–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ganesan S, Pearce SC, Gabler NK, Baumgard LH, Rhoads RP, Selsby JT (2018) Short-term heat stress results in increased apoptotic signaling and autophagy in oxidative skeletal muscle in Sus scrofa. J Therm Biol 72:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao C, Kuklane K, Ostergren PO, Kjellstrom T (2017) Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change. Int J Biometeorol 62:359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giuberti G, Gallo A, Masoero F, Ferraretto LF, Hoffman PC (2013) Factors affecting starch utilization in large animal food production system: a review. J Starch 65:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heerwagen LR, Mørkbak MR, Denver S, Sandøe P, Christensen T (2015) The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare. J Agric Environ Ethics 28(1):67–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huynh TT, Aarnink AJ, Verstegen MW, Gerrits WJ, Heetkamp MJN, Kemp B, Canh TT (2005) Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities. J Anim Sci 83:1385–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hyun Y, Ellis M (2002) Effect of group size and feeder type on growth performance and feeding patterns in finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 80:568–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Intergovrnmental Panel on Climate Changes (2014) Fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. http://www.ipccch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reportsshtml. Accessed 19 Oct 2017
  20. Johnson JS, Fernandez MVS, Patience JF, Ross JW, Gabler NK, Lucy MC, Safranski TJ, Rhoads RP, Baumgard RP (2015a) Effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal body composition in pigs: II. Finishing phase. J Anim Sci 93:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson JS, Fernandez MVS, Patience JF, Ross JW, Gabler NK, Lucy MC, Safranski TJ, Rhoads RP, Baumgard RP (2015b) Effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal body composition in pigs: I. Growing phase. J Anim Sci 93:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Larson R, Farber B (2010) Estatística aplicada. Pearson Prentice Hall, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  23. Li Q, Patience JF (2016) Factors involved in the regulation of feed and energy intake of pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol:1–12Google Scholar
  24. Moberg GP, Mench JA (2000) The biology of animal stress, basic principles and implicationsfor animal welfare. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1:1–21Google Scholar
  25. Morales A, Grageola F, García H, Arce N, Araiza B, Yáñez J, Cervantes M (2013) Performance, serum amino acid concentrations and expression of selected genes in pair-fed growing pigs exposed to high ambient temperatures. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 98:928–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Olcza K, Nowicki J, Klocek C (2015) Pig behaviour in relation to weather conditions – a review. Anim Sci 15:601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Patience JF, Rossoni-Serão MC, Gutiérrez NA (2015) A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 6:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Quiniou N, Dubois S, Noblet J (2000a) Voluntary feed intake and feeding behaviour of group-housed growing pigs are affected by ambient temperature and body weight. Livest Prod Sci 63:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quiniou N, Renaudeau D, Collin A, Noblet J (2000c) Effets de l’exposition au chaud sur les caractéristiques de la prise alimentaire du porc à différents stades physiologiques. INRA Prod Anim 13:233–245Google Scholar
  30. Renaudeau D, Kerdoncuff M, Anais C, Gourdine JL (2008) Effect of temperature level on thermal acclimation in large white growing pigs. Animal 2:1619–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Renaudeau D, Anais C, Tel L, Gourdine JL (2010) Effect of temperature level on thermal acclimation in growing pigs estimated using a non-linear function. J Anim Sci 88:3715–3724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Renaudeau D, Gourdine JL, St-Pierre NR (2011) A meta-analysis of the effect of high ambient temperature on growing–finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 89:2220–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Renaudeau D, Frances G, Dubois S, Gilbert H, Noblet J (2014) Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake. J Anim Sci 91:1162–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rodrigues NEB, Fialho ET, Zangeronimo MG, Cantarelli VS, Rodrigues PB, Filho MR, Minati E, Betarelli RP (2012) Reduction in the protein level and addition of oil in diets for finishing pugs under different temperatures. Rev Bras Zootec 41:1878–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rummukainen M (2013) Climate change: changing means and changing extremes. Clim Chang 121:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sanz Fernandez MV, Stoakes SK, Abuajamieh M, Seibert JT, Johnson JS, Horst EA, Rhoads RP, Baumgard LH (2015) Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs. Phys Rep 12478:1–12Google Scholar
  37. Saraiva A, Donzele JL, Oliveira RFM, Abreu MLT, Silva FCO, Guimarães SEF, Kim SW (2015) Phosphorus requirements for 60- to 100-kg pigs selected for high lean deposition under different thermal environments. J Anim Sci 90:1499–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silva BAN, Noblet J, Donzele JL, Oliveira RFM, Primot Y, Gourdine JL, Renaudeau D (2009) Effects of dietary protein level and amino acid supplementation on performance of mixed-parity lactating sows in a tropical humid climate1. J Anim Sci 87(12):4003–4012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith CJ, Fowler VR (1978) The importance of selection criteria and feeding regimens in the selection and improvement of pigs. Livest Prod Sci 5:415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Song R, Foster DN, Shurson GC (2014) Effects of feeding diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate to heat-stressed finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 89:1830–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spoolder HAM, Aarnink AJA, Vermeer HM, Riel JV, Edwards SA (2012) Effect of increasing temperature on space requirements of group housed finishing pigs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 138:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Terrien J, Perret M, Aujard F (2011) Behavioral thermoregulation in mammals: a review. Adap Mech Evol 4:13–22Google Scholar
  43. Thorslund CAH, Aaslyng MD, Lassen J (2017) Perceived importance and responsibility for market-driven pig welfare: Literature review. Meat Sci 125:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wolp RC, Rodrigues NEB, Zangeronimo MG, Cantarelli VS, Fialho ET, Philomeno R, Alvarenga RR, Rocha LF (2012) Soybean oil and crude protein levels for growing pigs kept under heat stress conditions. Livest Sci 147:148–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Animal SciencePontifícia Universidade Católica do ParanáCuritibaBrazil

Personalised recommendations