Advertisement

Personalized and content adaptive cultural heritage path recommendation: an application to the Gournia and Çatalhöyük archaeological sites

  • Georgios AlexandridisEmail author
  • Angeliki Chrysanthi
  • George E. Tsekouras
  • George Caridakis
Article

Abstract

Although abundant research work has been published in the area of path recommendation and its applications on travel and routing topics, scarce work has been reported on context-aware route recommendation systems aimed to stimulate optimal cultural heritage experiences. This paper tries to address this issue, by proposing a personalized and content adaptive cultural heritage path recommendation system, where location is modeled using mean-shift clustering trained with actual user movement patters. Additionally, topic modeling is incorporated to formalize the implicit cultural heritage content, while first order Markov models address the movement as a temporal transition aspect of the problem. The overall architecture is applied on data collected from actual visits to the archaeological sites of Gournia and Çatalhöyük and extensive analysis on visitor movement patterns follows, especially in comparison to the curated paths in the aforementioned sites. Finally, the offline evaluation results of the proposed recommendation scheme are encouraging, validating its efficiency and setting a positive paradigm for cultural heritage route recommendations.

Keywords

Digital cultural heritage Personalized Cultural User eXperience Cultural heritage path recommendation Route recommendation Computer assisted archaeology User modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Prof. Ian Hodder, director of the Çatalhöyük Research Project, as well as the Ephorate of Antiquities at Lasithi, Greek Ministry of Culture, for the permission to conduct the visitor survey at the archaeological sites of Çatalhöyük and Gournia respectively.

References

  1. Abel F., Gao Q., Houben G.J., Tao K.: Analyzing user modeling on twitter for personalized news recommendations. In: International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization, pp. 1–12. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  2. Alexandridis, G., Siolas, G., Stafylopatis, A.: Enhancing social collaborative filtering through the application of non-negative matrix factorization and exponential random graph models. Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 31(4), 1031–1059 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10618-017-0504-3 MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniou, A., Lepouras, G.: Modeling visitors’ profiles: a study to investigate adaptation aspects for museum learning technologies. J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 3(2), 7:1–7:19 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1841317.1841322 Google Scholar
  4. Araoz, G.F.: Preserving heritage places under a new paradigm. J. Cult. herit. Manag. Sustain. Dev. 1(1), 55–60 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. Ardissono, L., Kuflik, T., Petrelli, D.: Personalization in cultural heritage: the road travelled and the one ahead. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact. 22(1), 73–99 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11257-011-9104-x Google Scholar
  6. Ashbrook, D., Starner, T.: Using gps to learn significant locations and predict movement across multiple users. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 7(5), 275–286 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. Bedford, L.: Storytelling: the real work of museums. Curator Mus. J. 44, 27–34 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. Birch, J.: The anatomy of a prehistoric community: reconsidering çatalhöyük Bleda S. Düring. In: From Prehistoric Villages to Cities, Routledge, pp. 37–57 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. Bitgood, S., Patterson, D.: Orientation and wayfinding in a small museum. Visit. Behav. 1(4), 6 (1986a)Google Scholar
  10. Bitgood, S., Patterson, D.: Principles of orientation and circulation. Visit. Behav. 1(4), 4 (1986b)Google Scholar
  11. Bitgood, S., Patterson, D., Benefield, A.: Exhibit design and visitor behavior: empirical relationships. Environ. Behav. 20(4), 474–491 (1988)Google Scholar
  12. Blei, D.M., Ng, A.Y., Jordan, M.I.: Latent Dirichlet allocation. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 3, 993–1022 (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohnert, F., Zukerman, I., Berkovsky, S., Baldwin, T., Sonenberg, L.: Using collaborative models to adaptively predict visitor locations in museums. In: Nejdl, W., Kay, J., Pu, P., Herder, E. (eds.) Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, pp. 42–51. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  14. Camp, B.D., Koran, J.J.J., Koran, M.L.: Photographs as a research tool in visitor studies. J. Interpret. Res. 5, 47–58 (2000)Google Scholar
  15. Çatalhöyük Research Project: History of the excavations (2005). http://www.catalhoyuk.com/history.html. Accessed 15 March 2013
  16. Champion, E.: Playing with the Past. Human–Computer Interaction Series, 1st edn. Springer, London (2011)Google Scholar
  17. Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Mitchell, K., Friday, A., Efstratiou, C.: Developing a context-aware electronic tourist guide: some issues and experiences. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, USA, CHI ’00, pp. 17–24 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1145/332040.332047
  18. Chrysanthi, A.: Augmenting archaeological walks. Theoretical and methodological considerations. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton (2015). https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/383150/
  19. Chrysanthi, A., Caridakis, G.: The archaeological space via visitor movement and interaction. In: Papadopoulos, C., Paliou, E., Chrysanthi, A., Kotoula, E., Sarris, A. (eds.) Archaeological Research in the Digital Age. Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference-Greek Chapter (CAA-GR), Rethymno, Crete, 6–8 March 2014 (2015)Google Scholar
  20. Chrysanthi, A., Earl, G.: Management of archaeological walks and emerging technologies: Building up a framework. In: Contreras, F., Farjas, M., Melero, F.J. (eds.) CAA 2010: Fusion of Cultures. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Granada, Spain, April 2010—BAR International, British Archaeological Reports, UK (2013)Google Scholar
  21. Ciolfi, L., McLoughlin, M.: Challenges for the technological augmentation of open-air museums: bridging buildings, artefacts and activities. Nord. Museol. 1, 15 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. Comaniciu, D., Meer, P.: Mean shift: a robust approach toward feature space analysis. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(5), 603–619 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. Dai, J., Yang, B., Guo, C., Ding, Z.: Personalized route recommendation using big trajectory data. In: 2015 IEEE 31st International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), pp. 543–554. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  24. Damala, A., Stojanovic, N., Schuchert, T., Moragues, J., Cabrera, A., Gilleade, K.: Adaptive augmented reality for cultural heritage: Artsense project. In: Ioannides, M., Fritsch, D., Leissner, J., Davies, R., Remondino, F., Caffo, R. (eds.) Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation, pp. 746–755. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  25. Davaras, C.: Gournia (Archaeological receipts fund, Athens) (1989)Google Scholar
  26. Denard, H., et al.: The London charter for the computer-based visualisation of cultural heritage, February, pp. 1–13 (2009)Google Scholar
  27. Doytsher, Y., Galon, B., Kanza, Y.: Storing routes in socio-spatial networks and supporting social-based route recommendation. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Location-Based Social Networks, ACM, pp. 49–56 (2011)Google Scholar
  28. Dupuy, A.: Digital extension of the museum of marseilles towards a global museum built both in the real and the digital world. In: Proctor, N., Cherry, R. (eds.) Museums and the Web Asia (2014)Google Scholar
  29. Economou, M., Pujol-Tost, L.: Evaluating the impact of new technologies on cultural heritage visitors. In: Kaminski, J., McLoughlin, J., Sodagar, B. (eds.) Technology Strategy, Management and Socio-Economic Impact, no. 2 in Heritage management series, Archaeolingua, Budapest, pp. 109–121 (2007). http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/104108/. Accessed 18 Mar 2015
  30. Gavalas, D., Konstantopoulos, C., Mastakas, K., Pantziou, G.: Mobile recommender systems in tourism. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 39, 319–333 (2014)Google Scholar
  31. Giannotti, F., Nanni, M., Pinelli, F., Pedreschi, D.: Trajectory pattern mining. In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ACM, pp. 330–339 (2007)Google Scholar
  32. Graham, B., Ashworth, G., Tunbridge, J.: A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy. Routledge, Abingdon (2016)Google Scholar
  33. Ham, S.H., Weiler, B.: Development of a research-based tool for evaluating interpretation. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Gold Coast (2006)Google Scholar
  34. Hawes, H.B., Williams, B.A., Seager, R.B., Hall, E.H.: Gournia, Vasiliki, and Other Prehistoric Sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, Crete: Excavations of the Wells-Houston-Cramp Expeditions 1901, 1903, 1904, 2nd edn. INSTAP Academic Press (2014). http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1287h17. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  35. Hodder, I.: Excavating Çatalhöyük: South, North and KOPAL Area reports from the 1995–99 seasons. 37, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (2007)Google Scholar
  36. Hodder, I.: Multivocality and social archaeology. In: Habu, J., Fawcett, C., Matsunaga, J.M. (eds.) Evaluating Multiple Narratives, pp. 196–200. Springer, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  37. Hodder, I., Doughty, L.: Mediterranean Prehistoric Heritage: Training, Education and Management. McDonald Institute monographs, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge (2007)Google Scholar
  38. Hofmann, T.: Probabilistic latent semantic indexing. In: Proceedings of the 22Nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ACM, New York, NY, USA, SIGIR ’99, pp. 50–57 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1145/312624.312649
  39. Hofmann, T.: Collaborative filtering via gaussian probabilistic latent semantic analysis. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ACM, pp. 259–266 (2003)Google Scholar
  40. Horozov, T., Narasimhan, N., Vasudevan, V.: Using location for personalized poi recommendations in mobile environments. In: International Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT’06), pp. 6–129 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1109/SAINT.2006.55
  41. ICOMOS.: The icomos charter for the interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage sites (The Ename Charter). Ratified by the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS, Qubec, Canada, 4 October 2007. ICOMOS, Paris (2007)Google Scholar
  42. Iwata, T., Watanabe, S., Yamada, T., Ueda, N.: Topic tracking model for analyzing consumer purchase behavior. In: IJCAI, vol. 9, pp. 1427–1432 (2009)Google Scholar
  43. Johnsson, E.: Telling Tales: A Guide to Developing Effective Storytelling Programmes for Museums. Museums Hub (2006). https://books.google.gr/books?id=s4hvMwEACAAJ. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  44. Jones, M.: Journeying toward extravagant, expressive, place-based computing. Interactions 18(1), 26–31 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1897239.1897247 Google Scholar
  45. Katifori, A., Karvounis, M., Kourtis, V., Kyriakidi, M., Roussou, M., Tsangaris, M., Vayanou, M., Ioannidis, Y., Balet, O., Prados, T., Keil, J., Engelke, T., Pujol, L.: Chess: personalized storytelling experiences in museums. In: Mitchell, A., Fernández-Vara, C., Thue, D. (eds.) Interactive Storytelling, pp. 232–235. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)Google Scholar
  46. Katifori, A., Perry, S., Vayanou, M., Pujol, L., Chrysanthi, A., Kourtis, V., Ioannidis, Y.: Cultivating mobile-mediated social interaction in the museum: towards group-based digital storytelling experiences In: Annual Conference of Museums and the Web: MW2016 (2016)Google Scholar
  47. Kenderdine, S.: PLACE-Hampi, Ancient Hampi and Hampi-LIVE—an entanglement of people-things. In: Forte, M. (ed.) British Archaeological Reports, S2177 2010, Cyber-Archaeology (2010)Google Scholar
  48. Klein, H.J.: Tracking visitor circulation in museum settings. Environ. Behav. 25(6), 782–800 (1993)Google Scholar
  49. Konstan, J.A., Riedl, J.: Recommender systems: from algorithms to user experience. User Model. User-Adapt. Interact. 22(1), 101–123 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11257-011-9112-x Google Scholar
  50. Koutsabasis, P.: Empirical evaluations of interactive systems in cultural heritage: a review. Int. J. Comput. Methods Herit. Sci. 1(1), 100–122 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.4018/IJCMHS.2017010107 Google Scholar
  51. Krumm, J., Horvitz, E.: Predestination: inferring destinations from partial trajectories. In: International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Springer, pp. 243–260 (2006)Google Scholar
  52. Kurashima, T., Iwata, T., Irie, G., Fujimura, K.: Travel route recommendation using geotagged photos. Knowl. Inf. Syst. 37(1), 37–60 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10115-012-0580-z Google Scholar
  53. Lanir, J., Kuflik, T., Sheidin, J., Yavin, N., Leiderman, K., Segal, M.: Visualizing museum visitors’ behavior: where do they go and what do they do there? Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 21(2), 313–326 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-016-0994-9 Google Scholar
  54. Lekakis, S.: Creating a basic schema for the experiential approach in site management; the visitor perception. In: Thomas, J., Jorge, V.O. (eds.) Archaeology and the Politics of Vision in a Post-modern Context, Chap. 15, pp. 292–305. Cambridge Scholars Publishing (2008)Google Scholar
  55. Liestøl, G., Rasmussen, T.: In the presence of the past. A field trial evaluation of a situated simulation design reconstructing a viking ship burial scene (2010)Google Scholar
  56. Lu, E.H.C., Lee, W.C., Tseng, V.S.: Mining fastest path from trajectories with multiple destinations in road networks. Knowl. Inf. Syst. 29(1), 25–53 (2011)Google Scholar
  57. Mantzourani, E.: Prehistoric Crete: Topography and Architecture. Kardamitsa Publications, Athens (2002) (in Greek) Google Scholar
  58. Massung, E.M.: Visitor reception to location-based interpretation at archaeological and heritage sites. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol (2010)Google Scholar
  59. Matero, F.: The conservation of an excavated past. Towards reflexive method in archaeology: the example of Çatalhöyük, pp. 1–89 (2000)Google Scholar
  60. McEnroe, J.: Architecture of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze Age. University of Texas Press (2010). https://books.google.gr/books?id=A8hS5CVor2UC. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  61. Mellaart, J.: Çatal Hüyük: A Neolithic Town in Anatolia. McGraw-Hill, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  62. Morville, P.: User Experience Design. Semantic Studios LLC, Ann Arbor (2004)Google Scholar
  63. Mosler, A.S.: Landscape architecture on archaeological sites. Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München (2006)Google Scholar
  64. Noh, Z., Sunar, M.S., Pan, Z.: A review on augmented reality for virtual heritage system. In: Chang, M., Kuo, R., Kinshuk, Chen G.D., Hirose, M. (eds.) Learning by Playing. Game-Based Education System Design and Development, pp. 50–61. Springer, Berlin (2009)Google Scholar
  65. Not, E., Petrelli, D.: Empowering cultural heritage professionals with tool for authoring and deploying personalised visitor experiences. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research Special Issue on Personalized delivery of cultural heritage content (2019)Google Scholar
  66. Papagiannakis, G., Singh, G., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems. Comput. Animat. Virtual Worlds 19(1), 3–22 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1002/cav.v19:1 Google Scholar
  67. Perry, S., Chrysanthi, A., Kirkpatrick, I., Emond, E., Henderson, A., Wheeler, L., Meşe, G., Can Uslu, O., Can, G.: Site visualization and presentation. In: Çatalhöyük 2014 Archive Report (2014). http://www.catalhoyuk.com/downloads/Archive_Report_2014.pdf. Accessed 11 Sept 2015
  68. Preziosi, D.: Minoan Architectural Design: Formation and Signification. Mouton, Berlin (1983)Google Scholar
  69. Pujol, L., Katifori, A., Vayanou, M., Roussou, M., Karvounis, M., Kyriakidi, M., Eleftheratou, S., Ioannidis, Y.E.: From personalization to adaptivity—creating immersive visits through interactive digital storytelling at the acropolis museum. In: Bota, J.A., Charitos, D. (eds) Intelligent Environments (Workshops), IOS Press, Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, vol. 17, pp. 541–554 (2013)Google Scholar
  70. Rajaonarivo, L., Maisel, E., De Loor, P.: An evolving museum metaphor applied to cultural heritage for personalized content delivery. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research Special Issue on Personalized delivery of cultural heritage content (2019)Google Scholar
  71. Raptis, G.E., Fidas, C., Katsini, C., Avouris, N.: A cognition-centered personalisation framework for cultural-heritage content. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research Special Issue on Personalized delivery of cultural heritage content (2019)Google Scholar
  72. Rodriguez, B., Molina, J., Perez, F., Caballero, R.: Interactive design of personalised tourism routes. Tour. Manag. 33(4), 926–940 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.09.014 Google Scholar
  73. Rosenstock, E.: Early neolithic tell settlements of south-east europe in their natural setting: a study in distribution and architecture. Aegean-Marmara-Black-Sea Present state of the research of the Early Neolithic Schriften des Zentrums für Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte des Schwarzmeerraumes 5, 115–125 (2006)Google Scholar
  74. Roued-Cunliffe, H., Copeland, A.: Participatory Heritage. Facet Publishing, London (2017)Google Scholar
  75. Rousseeuw, P.J.: Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 20, 53–65 (1987).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0427(87)90125-7 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  76. Roussou, M., Pujol, L., Katifori, A., Chrysanthi, A., Perry, S., Vayanou, M.: The museum as digital storyteller: collaborative participatory creation of interactive digital experiences. In: Museums and the Web, p. 1 (2015)Google Scholar
  77. Sansonetti, G., Gasparetti, F., Micarelli, A., Cena, F., Gena, C.: Enhancing cultural recommendations through social and linked open data. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research Special Issue on Personalized delivery of cultural heritage content (2019)Google Scholar
  78. Serrell, B.: Paying attention: visitors and museum exhibitions. American Association of Museums (1998)Google Scholar
  79. Shoval, N., Isaacson, M.: Tourist Mobility and Advanced Tracking Technologies. Routledge, Abingdon (2009)Google Scholar
  80. Silberman, N.A.: Heritage interpretation as public discourse. Underst. Herit. Perspect. Herit. Stud. 1, 21 (2013)Google Scholar
  81. Silberman, N.A.: Heritage places: evolving conceptions and changing forms. In: Logan, W., Craith, M.N., Kockel, U. (eds.) A Companion to Heritage Studies, Chap. 2, pp. 29–41 Wiley (2015)Google Scholar
  82. Soles, J.S.: The Gournia Palace. Am. J. Archaeol. 95(1), 17–78 (1991)Google Scholar
  83. Solomon, E.: “Getting lost in the labyrinth”: tourists at the site of Knossos. BAR International Series, vol. 1739, p. 455 (2008)Google Scholar
  84. Su, H., Zheng, K., Huang, J., Jeung, H., Chen, L., Zhou, X.: Crowdplanner: a crowd-based route recommendation system. In: 2014 IEEE 30th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), IEEE, pp. 1144–1155 (2014)Google Scholar
  85. Thomas, J.: Archaeologies of place and landscape. Archaeological theory today, pp. 165–186 (2001)Google Scholar
  86. Tringham, R.: Last house on the hill: BACH area reports from Çatalhöyük. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Turkey (2012)Google Scholar
  87. UNESCO: Çatalhöyük nomination document (2012). http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1405/documents/. Accessed 5 March 2014
  88. Urry, J.: The Tourist Gaze. Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. Sage, London (1990)Google Scholar
  89. Uzzell, D.: Interpreting our heritage: a theoretical interpretation. Contemporary issues in heritage and environmental interpretation London: The Stationary Office, pp. 11–25 (1998)Google Scholar
  90. Vavouranakis, G.: Burials and the landscapes of Gournia, Crete, in the Bronze Age, University of Calgary Press, Calgary, pp. 233–242 (2006). http://press.ucalgary.ca/books/9781552381687. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  91. Vayanou, M., Katifori, A., Karvounis, M., Kourtis, V., Kyriakidi, M., Roussou, M., Tsangaris, M., Ioannidis, Y., Balet, O., Prados, T., Keil, J., Engelke, T., Pujol, L.: Authoring personalized interactive museum stories. In: Mitchell, A., Fernández-Vara, C., Thue, D. (eds.) Interactive Storytelling, pp. 37–48. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)Google Scholar
  92. Watrous, L.V., Buell, D.M., McEnroe, J.C., Younger, J.G., Turner, L.A., Kunkel, B.S., Glowacki, K., Gallimore, S., Smith, A., Pantou, P.A., et al.: Excavations at gournia, 2010–2012. Hesperia J. Am. Sch. Class. Stud. Athens 84(3), 397–465 (2015)Google Scholar
  93. Witmore, C.L.: Four archaeological engagements with place mediating bodily experience through peripatetic video. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 20(2), 57–72 (2004)Google Scholar
  94. Zancanaro, M., Kuflik, T., Boger, Z., Goren-Bar, D., Goldwasser, D.: Analyzing museum visitors’ behavior patterns. In: Conati, C., McCoy, K., Paliouras, G. (eds.) User Modeling 2007, pp. 238–246. Springer, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  95. Zheng, Y., Zhang, L., Xie, X., Ma, W.Y.: Mining interesting locations and travel sequences from GPS trajectories. In: Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web, ACM, pp. 791–800 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intelligent Interaction Research Group, Department of Cultural Technology and CommunicationUniversity of the AegeanMytileneGreece
  2. 2.Artificial Intelligence and Learning Systems Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of Cultural Technology and CommunicationUniversity of the AegeanMytileneGreece

Personalised recommendations