International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 51, Issue 12, pp 2285–2294 | Cite as

Metabolic syndrome is a predictor of decreased renal function among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese

  • Ryuichi KawamotoEmail author
  • Taichi Akase
  • Daisuke Ninomiya
  • Teru Kumagi
  • Asuka Kikuchi
Nephrology - Original Paper



Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide with the continuous increase in obesity prevalence. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also a major public health problem, but there is controversy over whether baseline MetS is a predictor of decreased renal function among Japanese community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.


We conducted a prospective cohort study designed as part of the Nomura study. We recruited a random sample of 410 men aged 68 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 50–95) years and 549 women aged 69 ± 7 (50–84) years during their annual health examination in a single community. We examined the relationship between baseline MetS and renal dysfunction after a 3-year evaluation based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKDEPI) using the CKD-EPI equations modified by the Japan coefficient. CKD was defined as dipstick-positive proteinuria (> or = 1 +) or a low eGFRCKDEPI (< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2).


Of the 959 participants, 413 (43.1%) had MetS at baseline. Annual eGFR decline rate was significantly greater in those with MetS than in those without MetS, and the annual eGFR decline rate of < − 1.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year increased significantly in relation to presence of baseline MetS, especially low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, the incidence rate of CKD after 3 years was 13.5% and increased significantly in relation to presence of baseline MetS, especially its components such as elevated HbA1c. The multivariate-adjusted odd ratio (OR) for CKD in participants with MetS versus those without MetS was 1.55 (0.99–2.43). The multivariate-adjusted ORs for rapid annual eGFR decline rate were significantly high in patients aged ≥ 65 years and presence of medication, regardless of gender and eGFR value.


Low HDL-C and elevated HbA1c levels correlated significantly with eGFR decline in a short period of 3 years. MetS also showed a significant association with eGFR decline. This study suggests the importance of low HDL-C and elevated HbA1c in the effect of MetS on eGFR decline rather than obesity among Japanese community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese without CKD.


Metabolic syndrome eGFRCKDEPI Decline rate Chronic kidney disease 



This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Foundation for Development of Community (2019).

Author contributions

RK participated in the design of the study, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. RK, TA, DN, TK, and AK, contributed to the acquisition and interpretation of data. RK, DN, and AK contributed to the conception and design of the statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee at which the studies conducted (IRB Approval Number: 1402009).

Informed consent

We obtained consent through an opt-out procedure from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11255_2019_2320_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community MedicineEhime University Graduate School of MedicineToon-cityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineSeiyo Municipal Nomura HospitalSeiyo-city, EhimeJapan

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