Scintigraphic evaluation of remote pre-conditioning protection against unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a longitudinal study
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To determine the role of remote perconditioning (RPeC) on renal function and histology in an animal model of unilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury.
Rats were subjected to 60 min unilateral renal ischemia. RPeC protocol was the application of four cycles of 5 min IR of left femoral artery during renal ischemia. Assessments of histological changes and renal function were made 24 h, 1 week, or 3 weeks later. 99mTc-DMSA scan was performed using a small-animals SPECT system.
24-h reperfusion decreased the 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the left kidney compared to the intact kidney of control animals. RPeC group has higher uptake compared to the IR group. After 1 week and 3 weeks, uptakes were gradually increased in both groups and no differences were observed. Severe morphological changes in the ischemic kidneys of both groups were observed after 24 h which attenuated after 1 week and 3 weeks. Moreover, no differences in creatinine and BUN levels between IR-treated and intact animals were observed.
These data suggest that RPeC exerts a partially transient improvement in the renal function in the first day after reperfusion. However, long-term follow-up study showed no beneficial effects of RPeC. Moreover, noninvasive 99mTc-DMSA scan revealed a suitable tool in the follow-up evaluation of recovery process in the unilateral renal IR injury models.
KeywordsIschemia/reperfusion injury Acute kidney injury Recovery process Animal SPECT Scintigraphy Remote ischemic perconditioning Follow-up study Unilateral ischemia Histopathology
This work was supported by a grant (number 3160) from Bushehr University of Medical Sciences to Sedaghat Z.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflict of interest.
All procedures of this study were approved by the Animal Ethic Committee at the Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (ethic code: BPUMS.REC.1394.14) which were in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Eighth Edition, 2011, published by The National Academies Press).
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