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Classification of non-gonococcal urethritis: a review

  • Mehmet SarierEmail author
  • Erdal Kukul
Urology - Review

Abstract

Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is the most common disease of the genital tract in men. Recent studies have recommended avoiding the empiric antibiotic administrations that constitute the classical treatment approach in NGU and to aim toward treatment of causative pathogens. However, the classification of NGU agents remains controversial. In addition, the relevance of the commensalism of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which are among the opportunistic pathogens found in the urethral flora, has yet to be determined. Furthermore, there are certain pathogens on which sufficient studies have not been conducted, although they are known to be NGU pathogens, and their statuses should be updated. In this review, the classification of NGU pathogens is summarized in the light of the current literature.

Keywords

Non-gonococcal urethritis Classification Urethritis PCR 

Abbreviations

CDC

Centers for disease control and prevention

CT

Chlamydia trachomatis

EBV

Epstein–Barr virus

EAU

European Association of Urology

GSS

Gram-stained urethral smear

GU

Gonococcal urethritis

GV

Gardnerella vaginalis

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HSV

Herpes simplex virus

MC

Moraxella catarrhalis

MG

Mycoplasma genitalium

MH

Mycoplasma hominis

MSM

Men sex with men

NAAT

Nucleic acid amplification test

NGU

Non-gonococcal urethritis

NM

Neisseria meningitidis

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PID

Pelvic inflammatory disease

PMNL/HPF

Polymorphonuclear leucocytes/high-power fields

STD

Sexually transmitted disease

TV

Trichomonas vaginalis

UP

Ureaplasma parvum

UU

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Notes

Funding

No funding received for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Medical FacultyIstinye UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of UrologyMedical Park HospitalAntalyaTurkey

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