Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for pediatric complex renal calculus disease: one-stage or two-stage?

  • Ben-Yi Fan
  • Lan Gu
  • Harripersaud Chand
  • Wen-Jun Liu
  • Jun-Bin YuanEmail author
Urology - Original Paper



To compare two different treatment strategies, one-stage and two-stage multi-tract mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mt-mPCNL), for pediatric complex renal calculus disease.


Between the period of July 2016 and July 2018, a total of 36 children aged 15 years and younger, with complex renal calculi disease, who underwent total ultrasound-guided mt-mPCNL by a single experienced urologist were enrolled in our study. All patients were assigned either to Group 1 (n = 18) who received one-stage mt-mPCNL or Group 2 (n = 18) who received planned two-stage mt-mPCNL.


The demographic data were comparable between the two groups. There were no serious complications (Modified Clavien Grade ≥ III) observed in either group. The stone -free rate (SFR), operation time, postoperative creatinine increase, and perioperative complication rates were similar in both groups (P = 0.603, 0.818, 0.161, and 0.402, respectively). The postoperative hospital stay (5.8 days vs. 7.4 days) and cost (17373.3 CNY vs. 23717.1 CNY) were statistically less in Group 1. Group 2 had significantly less total estimated blood loss (70.6 ml vs. 130.0 ml, P < 0.001). The operation time of two cases in Group 1 with perioperative sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was more than two hours.


Our preliminary results indicated that both one-stage and two-stage mt-mPCNL were safe and effective for pediatric complex renal calculi. Two-stage mt-mPCNL could significantly reduce blood loss; while one-stage mt-mPCNL could significantly decrease the length and costs of hospitalization. We also suggest that the planned two-stage mt-mPCNL should be applied in children with estimated operation time more than two hours.


Multi-tract Pediatric nephrolithiasis Percutaneous nephrolithotomy Staging operation Ultrasound-guided 



Funding was provided by the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province 2018JJ3808 (to Dr. Yuan).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of our institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the parents of all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben-Yi Fan
    • 1
  • Lan Gu
    • 2
  • Harripersaud Chand
    • 1
  • Wen-Jun Liu
    • 1
  • Jun-Bin Yuan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Xiangya HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Blood Transfusion, The Third Xiangya HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

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